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FASHION DESIGNING


Latest Designer Long Frock

Gorgeous red color designer long frock

Gorgeous Red Color Designer Long Frock with Simple and Elegant Gold Color Dupatta which has Pearls design and green coloured flowers lace.

Red color long frock designed with stone lace for neck, sleeves and bottom with big patch work.

Long frock bottom big pstch work with flowers, leaves, braches , parrots embroidery which looks like realistic.

Designer long frock and a designer dupatta that matches to all types of desogner long frocks. A popular outfit in Indian women traditional wear. In the present day, designer long frocks are available in a wide range of designs and pattern. Traditional long frocks are more comfortable than tight salwar suits.

Indian designer long frocks these outfits can be considered to be one of the most graceful and elegant clothing items that women can choose to wear. Indian pattu long dresses also suit almost all body types and also suit women of all ages.

Along with Indian pattu churidars, an Indian woman’s apparel cannot be complete without a few pattu long frocks and there are a number of ways to style pattu long frocks. For example, when you are heading to work, you can wear a long frocks with simple designs. Whereas, for parties and festivals, you can choose a designer embroidered pattu long frocks.

A designer long frock has seen as a multi functional outfit that can be worn on both casual and festive occasions. Hence, it is important to consider the occasion when you are choosing a designer long frocks.

Designer Banaras Blouse

Pink color designer banaras blouse

Attractive Dark Baby Pink Color Designer Banaras Blouse for women. This blouse matches to any type of sarees. Especially for traditional sarees, party wear sarees, pattu sarees, Gorgette sarees, net sarees etc,.

Every South Indian Bride's favorite blouse design . If you're planning to go all traditional with your blouse design then this one seems like the perfect match. Different simple design banaras sleeve blouse for a unique look. It looks perfect mostly with silk sarees especially for traditional sarees.

Pink color banaras designer blouse

Latest Designer Neck Designes for women. Front Boat neck and the back neck with threads at the top of the blouse. Hooks at the end of the blouse gives it simple look. In between the threads abd hooks diamond shape to the blouse gives it modish look.

Sleeves are simple design and slightly pleated bottom of sleeves is the main highlight of this blouse designs.

Semi Cotton Designer Blouse

Red checks design blouse

Red checks designer blouse and matches to all plain sarees. Grand look for occasions and also matches to tradional sarees.

Latest Designer Neck Designes for women. Front Boat neck design and back of the blouse 'U' shape design to designer semi-cotton blouse with sleeves.

Kanchi Pattu Designer Churidar

kanchi pattu churidar

Parrot green and royal blue is evergreen combination of Kanchi Silk churidars, Silk sarees, designer long frocks. Latest neck designs and simple traditional work to top of the churidar. Most of the Indian women likes Elegant and gorgeous pattu churidars with designs and patterns.

South Indian traditional kanchi pattu churidar with dupatta. Traditional churidars are one of the most beautiful clothes for ladies from India. Different model necks of pattu churidars comes with stunning fashion styles suits dupattas. Indian Ladies across the world wear for events, traditional programs, cultural programs etc because of its comfortable, ease, flexibility and trendy look. At the same time, the Indian salwar suits has also become an Indian Designer Choice and Indian Salwar Suits or Salwar Kameez is considered among most comfortable and fashionable dress for women around the world. .

There are numerous type of Indian salwar suits for ladies such as, Kanchi pattu churidars, Anarkali salwar suits, Bridal wedding salwar suits, Indian long salwar suit, casual salwar suits, Punjabi salwar suit….all Salwar suits which gives you many of selections to choose the one for every event. .

Kanchi Pattu Designer churidars are best excellent for most women on nearly all events. With a wide variety of designs and styles available it is also necessary to check which one suits you.

Multi coloured Designer Top

Designer top

Multi-coloured designer top for simple, casual and traditional wear. Any type of colour in leggings along with dupatta matches to designer top like Princeton orange colour, Royal blue, Dark green. Plain dupattas and plain leggings for designer tops are perfect match.

If you are a fan of your denim, you can try pant style suits to have some indo-western fusion fun. The narrow pants with the stylish tunic and scarf are the latest booming fashion trend. You can easily move and look stylish in pants without much effort. If you are a college girl or professional lady, you can pull off a classic and elegant look with stylish pants. And make sure to accessorize this suit with bold neckpieces or bangles.

Sea green Banarasi Designer Top

Banarasi Designer top

Sea green banarasi designer top for simple and casual wear. Plain leggings are good fit for designed tops. Gentle cream colour is perfect matching for sea green banarasi designer tops.

When you want to look stylish and comfortable altogether, you have to get the latest simple straight suits. With a simple suit, you can make traditional wear comfortable. Ladies who have to run all day between the office and home, for them the simple printed salwar suits, are bliss.

The simple suits can be further designed into different styles by pairing with different bottom options like churidars, salwars or palazzos.

Bandhani Designer Patiala Suit

Bandhani Designer suit

Bandhani designer patiala suit is a beautiful tie and dye process that originated from the states of Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan. These styles of designer suits are evergreen.

Bandhani suits are simple to look at, and they are mostly adorned with multiple colours. For the casual and party wear occasions, you can easily trust the Bandhani style. If you want to look gorgeous and elegant, you can easily add this style suits in your wardrobe.

Among all the trendy suit designs, you can always trust the Patiala salwar suits to keep you stylish. Whether you are a young college girl or super busy housewife, you won’t ever go wrong with the Patiala latest ladies suit design. These types of suits are preferred by Punjabi ladies mostly - the bottom of the suit is loose with ballooning shape tapered around the legs. This unique shape of the bottom makes these suits popular among comfort-seeking ladies a lot. Moreover, you can wear Patiala salwar suits from your casual outings to formal dinings without any hassle.

GRAND WEDDING SILK THREAD BANGLES


Dark Blue And Dark Pink Colour Combination


Combo colours silk bangles

Required Materials:

Medium size four Plastic Bangles

Small size twelve Plastic Bangles

Dark Blue colour silk thread

Dark Pink colour silk thread

Round-shaped half pearl beads

Oval-shaped half pearl beads

Gold ball chains

Pink ball chains

Blue ball chains

White stone sheets

Fabric glue

Scissors

Exam pad

Making of Medium Size Bangles:

Dark blue silk thread bangles

Choose dark blue coloured silk thread to wrap around bangle.


Take exam pad to wrap a dark blue coloured silk thread as 50 layers.


Cut at top of exam pad or bottom of exam pad by holding the thick layered thread and apply fevicol to stitch it.


Let it be dry for sometime and stitch thread inside of bangle.


Start wrapping Dark Blue coloured thread to a bangle.


After completion of wrapping the thread end of thread stitch inside the bangle.


Like wise remaining three bangles wrap with dark blue coloured silk thread and stitch with fabric glue inside of bangles.


Leave for sometime to dry four bangles.


Choose Grand looking unique design on four bangles.


After choosing design and get start implementing on bangles.


Take one blue coloured silk thread bangle and hold it in one hand.


Apply fabric glue on bangle and stitch one round-shaped half pearl bead.


Let it be dry ang again apply glue around the round-shaped half pearl bead after choosing size of gold ball chain.


Stitch the gold ball chain.


Take one more colour that is pink colour ball chain. Apply the glue around the gold ball chain and stitch pink colour ball chain.


Bottom of design apply glue like "V " shape and stitch oval-shaped half pearl beads. Let it be dry.


That the design looks like a flower.


Next to that apply glue and stitch round-shaped half pearl bead.


Again apply glue around round-shaped half pearl bead and stitch gold ball chain.


Apply glue around gold ball chain and stitch blue ball chain. Let it be dry.


After drying apply fabric glue or favicol like "V" shape and stitch oval-shaped half pearl beads. Let it be dry.


Repeat same design with alternate colours as like these on the bangle.


On remaining three bangles repeat same design.


Making of Small Size Bangles:

Pink colour silk thread bangles

Choose dark pink coloured silk thread to wrap around bangle.


Take a exam pad to wrap a dark pink coloured silk thread as 30 layers .


Cut at top of exam pad or bottom of exam pad by holding the thick layered thread and apply fevicol to stitch it.


Let it be dry for sometime and stitch thread inside of bangle.


Start wrapping Dark Pink coloured thread to a bangle.


After completion of wrapping the thread end of thread stitch inside the bangle.


Like wise remaining all twelve bangles wrap with dark pink coloured silk thread.


For implementing simple design on small size bangles cut white stone sheet as two white stones.


Like wise cut remaining sheet.


Apply glue on the bangle and stitch two white stones sheet.


Stitch two white stobe sheets as side by side.


Like wise remaining all bangles do the same.


Dark Blue And Red Colour Combination


Red colour bangles design

Required Materials:

Medium size two Plastic Bangles

Red colour silk threads

White stone lace

Fabric glue

Scissors

Exam pad

Procedure:

Choose one or more coloured silk threads to wrap around your bangle.


Use a bangle in the material of your choice such as wood, plastic, glass or metal, but the glue stick best to Plastic and Wood.


Take a broad plastic bangle which fits to your wrist and stitch with a fevicol one by one bangles.


Bangles takes sometime to dry.


Let us start wrapping royal blue colored silk thread to a exam pad as 30 layers and cut at the top of exam pad.


Hold red coloured silk thread and apply Fevicol to it. Let leave to dry.


Using stone lace make a design on the bangle.


Apply the fabric glue on the bangle and stitch White stone lace on it.


Beautiful Silk thread Party look Bangles are ready.


Royal Indian Elephant design 1

Required Materials:

One Big Plastic Bangle

Dark Blue colour silk threads

White stone chain and round shaped yellow color kundans

Red Ball chain

Gold ball chain

Drop shaped Green colour Kundan

Fabric glue

exam pad

Scissors

Procedure:

Take an exam pad and lets start wrapping upto 105 layers and cut with scissors at the top of the exam pad.


Stitch eith fabric glue and it be dry.


After dried lets start wrapping dark blue coloured silk thread to a bangle and while wrapping first of all we have to stitch first end to the bangle. Wrap one by one layers without attachments. At the end of the dark blue coloured silk thread apply fabric glue inside of the bangle and stitch it.


Bangle takes sometime to dry.


Imagine a Amazing design on the bangle .


An Amazing design is an elephant design which looks so beautiful.


Apply the fabric glue on the bangle in the shape of or design of an elephant.


Stitch Gold ball chain on the bangle .


After that cut gold ball chain into small pieces as pe the design .


Apply the glue on the head of elephant and cut red ball chain into small pieces as per the design and stitch those small pieces on the glue .


Again apply the glue below of the red ball chain and stitch the gold ball chain .


Stitch the white stone chain and below of that stitch yellow color round shaped kundan as eye of an elephant .


Apply the glue on the design and stitch a small piece of white stone chain as elephant teeth.


For trunk stitch the gold ball chain .


Apply the glue and stitch small pieces of gold ball chain as per the design of elephant legs .


Apply fabric glue for body of elephant as small lines .


Slowly stitch gold ball chains, white stone chains and red ball chains as per the design .


Royal Indian Elephant design 2

Apply glue on the top and center of the designand stich drop shaped green colour kundan.


Apply the glue around the kundan and stitch gold ball chain.


Again stitch two lines of red ball chain pieces.


Below of that apply glue and stitch gold ball chain.


Measure white stone line and cut into measurements , stitch below the gold ball chain .


Royal Indian Elephant design 3

Fill the body withe gold ball chains by applying fabric glue.


Stitch two white stones for both the legs.


Apply a glue as small tail and stitch small piece of gold ball chain.


Royal Indian Elephant design 4

Finally Traditional Royal Indian Elephant on silk thread bangle ready for Brides .


Orange and Light green Colour Combination


Orange and light green colour bangles design 1

Required Materials:

One Big Plastic Bangle

Orange colour silk threads

Round shaped yellow color kundans

Pearl chain

Red colour small ball chains

Drop shaped colourful Kundans

All Coloured kundan motives

Fabric glue

exam pad

Scissors

Procedure:

Take an exam pad and lets start wrapping upto 95 layers and cut with scissors at the top of the exam pad.


Stitch with fabric glue and it be dry.


After dried lets start wrapping light green coloured silk thread to a bangle and while wrapping first of all we have to stitch first end to the bangle.


Wrap one by one layers without attachments. At the end of the light green coloured silk thread apply fabric glue inside of the bangle and stitch it.


Bangle takes sometime to dry.


Imagine a highlighting design on the bangle .


Apply glue alternatively on the bangle.


Stitch drop shaped sea green kundan.


Measure small gold ball chain areound sea green drop shaped kundan and cut into appropriate measurements.


Orange and light green colour bangles design 1

Apply glue around the kundan and stitch big gold colour ball chain.


Measure small red ball chain in the shape of mango motive.


Apply glue in the shape of mango motive and stitch small red colour ball chain.


Measure pearl chain around the small red colour ball chain and cut into appropriate measurements.


Apply glue around the small red ball chain and stitch pearl chain.


Apply glue in the remaining space and stitch orange colour round shaped kundan.


Apply glue below of the mango motive design and stitch blue colour kundan motive.


Likewise repeat same prodcedure to remaining.


Kerala Traditional Bangles set


Gold and white colour combination bangle design

Gold and white colour combination silk thread bangles set for bridal and return gifts. Its a tradional and simple wedding collection. You can use as set or single kada or medium size bangles or small size bangles as per your taste. It matches to taditional dresses, silk sarees, colourful sarees, silk dresses, long frocks, party wear sarees etc,.


Stylish Dark Pink Bangle


Swam design 1

Required Materials:

One Big Plastic Bangle

Dark Pink colour silk threads

Blue colour drop shaped color kundans

Pearl chain

Gold colour small ball chains

Red colour Kundans

Gold colour Zardoozi

White stone chains

Fabric glue

exam pad

Scissors

Procedure:

Take an exam pad and lets start wrapping dark pink colour silk thread upto 110 layers and cut with scissors at the top of the exam pad.


Stitch with fabric glue and it be dry.


After dried lets start wrapping to a bangle and while wrapping first of all we have to stitch first end to the bangle.


Wrap one by one layers without attachments. At the end of the dark pink coloured silk thread apply fabric glue inside of the bangle and stitch it.


Bangle takes sometime to dry.


Imagine attractive and traditional design on the bangle.


Apply fabric glue in the form of drop shape on the bangle at the center.


Stitch drop shaped blue colour kundan on the bangle and around it measure gold colour ball chain.


Cut into appropriate measurements and stitch measured cut pieces in drop shaped.


Measure white stone chain around gold ball chain and cut into measured pieces.


Apply glue around gold ball chain and stitch white stone measured chain.


Measure gold ball chain around white stone chain and stitch measured gold ball chain.


Apply glue in the shape of swam head and neck.


Measure zardozi, gold ball chains cut into small pieces. Stitch gold ball chain in the shape of head and neck. Fill measured pieces of zardozi and gold ball chain. Apply glue like beak and stitch gold ball chain and fill with zardozi. Apply glue on the top of the head and stitch small gold ball chain and also at end of it stitch pearls.


Swam design 2

Apply glue in the shape of feathers and stitch measured gold ball chains.


Fill zardozi with glue in between the feathers.


Cut the chain into pearl balls and stitch each pearl ball at the end of the feathers.


It matches to plain sarees, traditional sarees, silk sarees, bridal wear, silk churidars etc,.


TRENDING SILK THREAD KADA


Banaras Cloth Kada


Flower banaras design

Required Materials:

Banaras cloths

Round-shaped color kundans

Pearl chains

Drop-shaped color kundans

Fabric glue

Scissors

Needle to Sew

Medium size two Plastic Bangles


Making:

Take medium size two plastic bangles and stitch both the bangles by applying glue between them.


Select a bangle base in the desired shape, material and width.


Lets see the size of cloth that that matches to bangle with clear design & cut the extra cloth with scissors.


Keep the design cloth on bangle & lets Stitch inside by attaching both ends.


Stitch color Stones, Kundans, Stone lines,Pearl line with glue on the designed cloth and wait for dry.


Here Beautiful designed bangle ready.


Jhumka Design Silk Thread Kada


Jhumka design on big bangle

Required Materials:

White colour silk thread

Gold ball chains

Round-shaped red colour kundans

Round-shaped gold color kundans

Fabric glue

Scissors

Exam pad

Big size two Plastic Bangles

Making:

Take big size two plastic bangles and stitch both the bangles by applying glue between them.


Choose one or more coloured silk threads to wrap around your bangle.


You can use a Single colour to wrap your bangle, or you can use two or more different colours of the bangle at once again thin thread.


Take a single color silk thread to wrap a bangle.


Silk thread color is White color.


Take a exam pad to wrap a white color silk thread as 70 Layers.


Cut at top of exam pad or bottom of exam pad by holding the thick layered thread and apply fevicol to stitch it.


Let it be dry for sometime and stitch thread inside of bangle.


Start wrapping White coloured thread to a bangle.


After completion of wrapping the thread end of thread stitch inside the bangle.


After choosing of Jhumkas design on the bangle.


Let's see color combinations of White color thread bangle and as well as Jhumkas colour.


Place one red colour stone on the bangle and stitch it.


Take one gold colour pearl line and stitch around red colour stone and again stitch around gold colour Pearl line.


At the bottom of gold colour Pearl line,stitch one gold colour Kundan.


Place gold colour Pearl line as reverse 'U' shape by attaching gold colour Kundan.


At the bottom of reverse 'U' Shape stitch red colour Kundans.


Fill inside of reverse 'U' shape Jhumka with gold colour Pearl lines.


Hence an amazing Jhumka design is ready on the bangle.


Multi Coloured Banaras Cloth Kada


Banaras cloth model

Required Materials:

Multi-coloured Banaras cloths

Fabric glue

Scissors

Needle to Sew

Plastic Bangles


Making:

Select a bangle base in the desired shape, material and width.


Let's see the size of cloth that that matches to bangle with clear design and cut the extra cloth with scissors.


Keep the design cloth on bangle and let's Stitch inside by attaching both ends.


Here Beautiful designed bangle ready.


Rainbow Silk Thread Kada


Colourful silk thread bangle 1

Required Materials:

Pink coloured silk thread

Orange coloured silk thread

Red coloured silk thread

Crimson coloured silk thread

Light green coloured silk thread

Dark green coloured silk thread

Brown coloured silk thread

Voilet coloured silk thread

Purple coloured silk thread

Fabric glue

Scissors

Needle to Sew

Making:

Colourful silk thread bangle 2


Select a bangle base in the desired shape, material and width.


You can choose a wide are narrow bangle to wrap with silk thread.


Circular bangles are the most common type, but if you can find a square or oval bangle, then you could wrap one of these with silk thread as well.


Keep in mind that wider bangles take more time to wrap with thread than narrow bangles do.


Make sure that the bangle fits your wrist before you wrap it with the thread.


Choose one or more silk threads to wrap around your bangle.


You can use a single color to wrap your bangle or you can use two or more different colors of thread.


Thicker thread will cover more of the bangle at once than thin thread.


Wrap all color threads to a exam pad as 50 layers and cut at the top or bottom of exam pad.


Hold it and apply Fevicol to it. Let leave to dry.


Place all coloured threads beside bangle and choose colours to wrap side by side.


50 layers colour threads are ready to wrap bsngle.


Wrap all colour silk threads to bangle side by side.


Hence, bangle looks so colourful and it matches to all colour plain sarees, kurthis, churidars.


Mango Motives Silk Thread Kada


Motives design

Required Materials:

Plastic Kada

Black coloured silk thread

Mango shapped light green kundan

Small gold bal chains

Pearl chains

Big gold ball chains

Coloured kundans motives

Exam pad

Fabric glue

Scissors

Making:

Choose a plastic base kada in the round shape.


Take a exam pad to wrap a black color silk thread as 80 Layers .


Cut at top of exam pad or bottom of exam pad by holding the thick layered thread and apply fevicol to stitch it.


Let it be dry for sometime and stitch thread inside of bangle.


Start wrapping black coloured thread to a kada.


After completion of wrapping the thread end of thread stitch inside the kads.


Apply fabric glue on the kada alternatively.


Stitch the mango shapped light green kundans on the kada.


Measure small sized gold colour ball chain around the mango shapped light green colour kundan.


Cut small sized gold colour ball chains into particular measurements.


Place aside all the measured gold colour ball chain pieces.


Apply glue around the mango shapped light green kundans.


Pick one of the small sized gold ball chain pieces stitch on the glue.


Likewise apply fabric glue and stitch small sized gold colur ball chain pieces on whole bangle.


Measure pearl chains around already stitched small size gold coloured ball chain.


Cut pearl chains into particular measurements.


Place aside pearl chain pieces.


Apply glue around small sized gold ball chain.


Pick one of the pearl chain piece and stitch on the glue.


Likewise apply glue and stitch remaining pearl chain pieces.


Measure big gold ball chain around the pearl chain.


Cut big gold chains into particular measurements.


Place aside big gold ball chain pieces.


Apply glue around pearl chain.


Pick one of the big gold ball chain piece and stitch on the glue.


Likewise apply glue and stitch remaining big gold ball chain pieces.


Open the colour kundans packet and place aside.


Apply the fabric glue in between two mango motives design.


Stitch colour kundan motive.


Likewise apply glue and stitch remaining colour kundans.


Gold Silk Thread Kada


Gold silk thread bangle

Required Materials:

Plastic Kada

Gold coloured silk thread

Round shapped light green kundan motives

Round shapped light pink colour kundan motives

Half-shaped pearl sheets

Round shaped gold colour kundans

Exam pad

Fabric glue

Scissors

Making:

Choose a plastic base kada in the round shape.


Take a exam pad to wrap a gold color silk thread as 80 Layers .


Cut at top of exam pad or bottom of exam pad by holding the thick layered thread and apply fevicol to stitch it.


Let it be dry for sometime and stitch thread inside of bangle.


Start wrapping gold coloured thread to a kada.


After completion of wrapping the thread end of thread stitch inside the kada.


Apply glue alternatively on the bangle.


Stitch pink colour and green coloured kundan motives.


Apply glue on the coloured kundan motives above and bottom of those.


Stitch gold coloured kundans.


Apply glue inbetween kundan motives and stitch half-shapped pearl sheets with diamond shapped design.


Beautiful Kerala wedding bangle kada for bridalwear ready.


Chandbali Designed Silk Thread Kada


Chandbali design 1

Required Materials:

Big size Plastic Kada

Orange coloured silk thread

Drop shapped violet colour kundans

Small gold ball chains

Pearl chains

Colourful motives

All Coloured kundans motives

Exam pad

Fabric glue

Scissors

Making:

Choose a plastic base kada in the round shape.


Take a exam pad to wrap a black color silk thread as 80 Layers .


Cut at top of exam pad or bottom of exam pad by holding the thick layered thread and apply fevicol to stitch it.


Let it be dry for sometime and stitch thread inside of bangle.


Start wrapping orange coloured thread to a kada.


After completion of wrapping the thread end of thread stitch inside the kads.


Apply glue alternatively on the bangle.


Chandbali design 1

Stitch colourful drop shapped kundans like blue, green, purple.


Apply glue below of the drop shapped kundans reversely.


Stitch same colour kundans on the bangle.


Apply glue around the drop shaped coloured kundans.


Measure small gold ball chain around the colourful drop shaped kundans and cut into pieces.


Apply glue around the colourful drop shaped kundans.


Stitch that cut pieces around the above kundan and below kundan.


Apply glue around the small size ball chain and Stitch the cut pieces around it.


Measure pearl chain around the small chains balls and cut into appropriate measurements.


Apply glue and stitch measure pearl chain.


Apply glue below of the pearl chain and stitch coloured kundan motive.


Likewise repeat all our colourful kundans.


Chandbali designed bangle matches to all traditional wears.


Royal Blue Banaras Designed Cloth Kada


Royal Blue banaras cloth design

Required Materials:

Royal Blue Banaras designed cloths

Big plastic bangle

Round-shaped Gold color kundans

Pearl chains

Pink ball chains

Gold ball chains

Fabric glue

Scissors

Needle to Sew

Making:

Take big size plastic bangles.


Lets see the size of cloth that that matches to bangle with clear design and cut the extra cloth with scissors.


Keep the design cloth on bangle and lets Stitch inside by attaching both ends with needle.


Apply glue on the banaras flower designed cloth.


Stitch gold colour kundan on the bangle.


Measure gold ball chain around gold colour kundan and cut into partiular measurements.


Apply glue around gold kundan and stitch gold ball chain.


Measure pink ball chain around gold ball chain and cut into psrticular measurements.


Apply glue around gold ball chain and stitch pink ball chain.


Cut pearl chain into small pearl balls ans apply glue around pink ball chain alternatively.


Stitch pearl balls on the bangle.


Likewise repeat same procedure on the flower designed banaras cloth kada.


Gold Colour And Pearl Combination Kada


Gold colour pearl combination

Required Materials:

Big plastic bangle

Gold coloured silk thread

Drop shaped sea green kundans

Small gold ball chains

Pearl chains

Gold stone chains

Half shaped pearl beads

Exam pad

Fabric glue

Scissors

Making:

Choose a plastic base kada in the round shape.


Take a exam pad to wrap a gold color silk thread as 80 Layers .


Cut at top of exam pad or bottom of exam pad by holding the thick layered thread and apply fevicol to stitch it.


Let it be dry for sometime and stitch thread inside of bangle.


Start wrapping gold coloured thread to a kada.


After completion of wrapping the thread end of thread stitch inside the kada.


Apply glue center of the bangle and stitch half shaped pearl kundan.


Apply glue around the half pearl bead in the form of drop shape alternatively and stitch drop shaped sea green kundans.


Apply glue parallel to the design and repeat same procedure.


Measure gold stone chain around the both designs. Cut into particular measurements and stitch gold colour stone chain.


Measure small gold ball chains, pearl ball chains,gold stone chains as like gold colour stone chain.


Cut into particular measurements and apply glue. Stitch small gold ball chain beside gold stone chain.


Apply glue beside small gold ball chains. Stitch pearl ball chain.


Apply glue beside pearl ball chain and stitch measured small gold ball chain.


Repeat same procedure till end of the bangle.


One design completed and now repeat same pattern on another side of the bangle.


It matches to Kerala sarees, uppada sarees, kanchi silk sarees, silk churidars.


Attractive Dual colour Kada


Dark royal and light green kada 1

Required Materials:

Dark royal blue silk threads

Light green silk threads

Multi-coloured stones sheets

Multi-coloured kundan motives

Big size plastic bangle

Fabric glue

Scissors

Making:

Choose big size plastic bangle.


First take dark royal blue colour silk thread and wrap to the eaxam pad with 90 layers.


Hold top of the exam pad and cut. Apply the glue and stitch it. Let it be dry for few seconds.


Take light green colour silk thread and wrap to an exam pad with 90 layers.


Hold top of the exam pad and cut. Apply the glue and stitch it. Let it be dry for few seconds.


Wrap 90 layers of dark royal blue silk thread to big size bangle on half-side and at the end stitch with glue inside of the bangle.


Wrap 90 layers of light green silk thread to big size bangle on another side and at the end of the silk thread stitch with glue inside of the bangle.


Dark royal and light green kada 2

Choose light green colour stone sheets and measure on the bangle as two layers.


Cut two layered stone sheets into four stone layered sheet. Place aside all those measured and cut pieces.


Apply glue alternatively on the dark royal blue colour silk thread bangle.


Stitch measured light green stone layered sheets on the bangle.


Place colourful kundans a side. Apply the glue in between the light green coloured stone sheets.


Stitch dark green colour kundan on the top of the bangle in between the light green stone sheets.


Apply the glue in between light green stone sheets at the bottom of the bangle.


Stitch link pink colour kundan at the bottom of the bangle in between the light green stone sheets.


Dark blue colour silk thread half bangle is on ready with design.


Dark royal and light green kada 3

Choose multi-coloured stone sheets and measure on the bangle as two layers.


Cut two layered stone sheets into four stone layered sheet. Place aside all those measured and cut pieces.


Apply glue alternatively on the light green colour silk thread bangle


Stitch measured multi-coloured stone layered sheets on the bangle.


Place colourful kundans a side. Apply the glue in between the mutli-coloured stone sheets.


Stitch dark blue colour kundan on the top of the bangle in between the mutli-coloured stone sheets.


Apply the glue in between multi-coloured stone sheets at the bottom of the bangle.


Stitch yellow colour kundan at the bottom of the bangle in between the multi-coloured stone sheets.


Light green colour silk thread another half bangle is on ready with design.


Dark royal blue and light green colour combinationa mainly matches to Silk Sarees, Silk Churidars, Banaras Churidars, all types of Sarees, Party wear sarees, Traditional Wear etc.,.


Gorgeous Red colour Kada


Red colour silk thread bangle

Required Materials:

Big size plastic bangle

Red colour silk threads

Light green colour stones sheets

Fabric glue

Scissors

Making:

Choose big size plastic bangle.


Take Red colour silk thread and wrap to the eaxam pad with 70 layers.


Hold top of the exam pad and cut. Apply the glue and stitch it. Let it be dry for few seconds.


Place aside light green colour stone sheets amd measure.


Cut light green colour stone sheets into rhombus shape and place aside.


Apply glue on the bangle alternatively and stitch placed light green stone sheets measured pieces.


Gorgeous red silk thread bangle matches to silk sarees, any festive occasions, parties etc,..


Flower Design Kada


Lotus design 1

Required Materials:

One Big Plastic Bangle

Light colour silk threads

Half rounded pearl kundans

Small gold ball chains

Red colour small ball chains

Half rounded dark green colour Kundans

Small blue ball chains

Fabric glue

exam pad

Scissors

Procedure:

Take an exam pad and lets start wrapping upto 95 layers and cut with scissors at the top of the exam pad.


Stitch eith fabric glue and it be dry.


After dried lets start wrapping light green coloured silk thread to a bangle and while wrapping first of all we have to stitch first end to the bangle.


Wrap one by one layers without attachments. At the end of the light green coloured silk thread apply fabric glue inside of the bangle and stitch it.


Bangle takes sometime to dry.


Imagine a Lotus design on the bangle .


Measure small gold ball chain one by one around the dark green colour kundan and cut into required measurements.


Apply glue at the bottom of the design and stitch green colour round shaped kundan.


Apply glue around dark green colour kundan and stitch measured small gold ball chains one by one in the reound shape.


Imagine Lotus design on the bangle and measure small red ball chains. Cut into required measurements.


Apply glue in the shape of lotus on the small gold ball chains.


Stitch measured small red ball chains in the shape of Lotus design on the bangle. Fill the small red ball chains in between the design.


So, measure for remaining four petals of lotus design and cut into required measurements. Apply glue on the bangle and stitch with required measurements.


Design the Blue colour Lotus on another side which is parallel to the Red Lotus design.


Lotus design 2

Imagine another Lotus design on the bangle .


Measure small gold ball chain one by one around the pearl bead and cut into required measurements.


Apply glue at the bottom of the design and stitch round shaped pearl bead.


Apply glue around half shaped pearl bead and stitch measured small gold ball chains one by one in the round shape.


Imagine Lotus design on the bangle and measure small blue ball chains. Cut into required measurements.


Apply glue in the shape of lotus on the small gold ball chains


Stitch measured small blue ball chains in the shape of Lotus design on the bangle. Fill the small blue ball chains in between the design.


So, measure for remaining four petals of lotus design and cut into required measurements.


Highlighted unique Lotus design bangle used as kada or wear contrast colour bangles just like set bangles as matches to saree colour, dress colour etc.


Peacock Design Kada


Peacock design silk thread bangle 1

Required Materials:

Big size plastic bangle

Red colour silk threads

Round shaped Light green colour kundans

Fabric glue

Scissors

Exam pad/chopped pad

Pearl chains

Orange shapped red colour kundans

Big Gold ball chains

Small Gold ball chains

Drop shaped blue colour kundans

white stone chains

White stones

Scissors

Making:

Choose big size plastic bangle.


Take Red colour silk thread and wrap to the eaxam pad with 70 layers.


Hold top of the exam pad and cut. Apply the glue and stitch it. Let it be dry for few seconds.


Imagine a peacock design on the bangle and measure gold ball chains.


Cut into measured pieces and keep it aside.


Apply glue in the shape of peacock design and stitch on it.


Stitch big gold ball chain on the outer design and fill with small gold ball chain cut pieces.


Apply glue for body of peacock design and stitch drop shaped blue colour kundan and around measure small gold ball chain.


Cut into pieces in the measurements. Apply glue and stitch measured small gold ball chain.


Measure white stone chain aound small gold ball chain and cut into measurements.


Apply glue aound small gold ball chain and stitch measured white stone chain.


Apply glue around white stone chain and stitch measured big gold ball chain.


Apply glue on the top of the head part and stitch measured gold ball piece and as well as stitch beak part with measured gold ball chain.


Take a white kundan and apply glue and stitch white kundan like eye of the peacock.


Peacock design silk thread bangle 2

Apply glue alternatively and stitch orange and light green colour kundans.


Cut big gold ball chians in small pieces to fill in the feather part of peacock design.


Measure small gold ball around the colour kundans and cut into measurements ans d stitch around it.


Measure pearl chain around small gold ball chain and cut into measurements, keep it aside.


Apply glue and stitch measured pearl chain. Apply glue and stitch measured gold ball pieces for fillings.


Peacock designed silk thread bangle or kada attracts brides as well as traditional women. It matches for all tradional sarees and it's a customized silk thread bangle. You can also rotate the bangle and wear, there are dual designs on silk thread bangle or kada. Looks simple but it's elegant for especially brides.


UNIQUE SILK THREAD BANGLES


Gorgeous Royal Blue Silk Thread Bangles For Party Wear


Party wear bangles

Required Materials:

Medium size two Plastic Bangles

Blue colour silk threads

White stone sheets

Fabric glue

Scissors

Procedure:

Use a bangle in the material of your choice such as wood, plastic, glass or metal, but the glue will stick best to Plastic and Wood.


Take a broad plastic bangle which fits to your wrist and stitch with a fevicol one by one bangles.


Bangles takes sometime to dry.


Let us start wrapping royal blue colored silk thread to a exam pad as 30 layers and cut at the top of exam pad.


Hold royal blue coloured silk thread and apply Fevicol to it. Let leave to dry.


Cut two layered white stone lace from white stone sheets to make a design on the bangle.


Apply fabric glue on the bangle and stitch two layered white stone lace. let it be dry.


Gorgeous Silk thread Party wear Bangles are ready.


Pretty Gold Silk Thread Bangles For Party Wear


Gold coloured silk thread bangles set

Required Materials:

Medium size two Plastic Bangles

Gold colour silk threads

White stone sheets

Fabric glue

Scissors

Making:

Use a bangle in the material of your choice such as wood, plastic, glass or metal, but the glue will stick best to Plastic and Wood.


Take a broad plastic bangle which fits to your wrist and stitch with a fevicol one by one bangles.


Bangles takes sometime to dry.


Let us start wrapping royal blue colored silk thread to a exam pad as 30 layers and cut at the top of exam pad.


Hold Gold coloured silk thread and apply Fevicol to it. Let leave to dry.


Using color stone lines or stone lace, kundans etc, make a design on it.


I made a simple design on bangle with white colored stone Lines.


Jhumka design Silk thread Bangles sets are ready.


Beautiful Red Silk Thread Bangles For Party Look


Red silk bangles

Required Materials:

Medium size two Plastic Bangles

Red colour silk threads

White stone lace

Fabric glue

Scissors

Procedure:

Choose one or more coloured silk threads to wrap around your bangle.


Use a bangle in the material of your choice such as wood, plastic, glass or metal, but the glue stick best to Plastic and Wood.


Take a broad plastic bangle which fits to your wrist and stitch with a fevicol one by one bangles.


Bangles takes sometime to dry.


Let us start wrapping royal blue colored silk thread to a exam pad as 30 layers and cut at the top of exam pad.


Hold red coloured silk thread and apply Fevicol to it. Let leave to dry.


Using stone lace make a design on the bangle.


Apply the fabric glue on the bangle and stitch White stone lace on it.


Beautiful Silk thread Party look Bangles are ready.


Pretty Gold Silk Thread Bangles For Party Wear


Gold coloured silk thread bangles set

Required Materials:

Medium size two Plastic Bangles

Gold colour silk threads

White stone sheets

Fabric glue

Scissors

Making of Small Size Bangles:

Choose white coloured silk thread to wrap around bangle.


Take a exam pad to wrap a white coloured silk thread as 30 layers .


Cut at top of exam pad or bottom of exam pad by holding the thick layered thread and apply fevicol to stitch it.


Let it be dry for sometime and stitch thread inside of bangle.


Start wrapping white coloured thread to a bangle.


After completion of wrapping the thread end of thread stitch inside the bangle.


Like wise remaining all twelve bangles wrap with dark pink coloured silk thread.


For implementing simple design on small size bangles cut colourful stone sheet as three colourful stones.


Like wise cut remaining sheet.


Apply glue on the bangle and stitch three colourful stones sheet.


Stitch three colourfulshote sheets as side by side.


Like wise remaining all bangles do the same.


Gorgeous Royal Blue Silk Thread Bangles Set For Party Wear


Party wear bangles

Required Materials:

Small size twenty Plastic Bangles

Pink colour silk threads

Sea green colour silk threads

Gold colour kundans

Fabric glue

Scissors

Procedure for Small size Bangles:

Use a bangle in the material of your choice such as wood, plastic, glass or metal, but the glue will stick best to Plastic and Wood.


Take a broad plastic bangle which fits to your wrist and stitch with a fevicol one by one bangles.


Bangles takes sometime to dry.


Combination of royal blue with Sea green and Pink colour Party wear bangles

Let us start wrapping pink colored silk thread to a exam pad as 30 layers and cut at the top of exam pad.


Hold pink coloured silk thread and apply Fevicol to it. Let leave to dry.


Repeat the same procedure for remaining five bangles.


Let us start wrapping sea green colored silk thread to a exam pad as 30 layers and cut at the top of exam pad.


Hold sea green coloured silk thread and apply Fevicol to it. Let leave to dry.


Repeat the same procedure for remaining thirteen bangles.


Apply glue on all the bangles alternatively to make a design on the bangle.


Stitch Gold colour kundans on the appropriate applied glue on sea green bangles. let it be dry.


Gorgeous Silk thread Party wear Bangles Sets are ready.


Dark Royal Blue Silk Thread Bangles


Kundan Bangles

Required Materials:

Dark royal blue silk threads

Big gold ball chain

Drop shaped Gold Kundans

Big size plastic bangle

Fabric glue

Scissors

Making:

Choose big size plastic bangle.


Let us start wrapping dark royal blue colored silk thread to a exam pad as 70 layers and cut at the top of exam pad.


Hold dark royal blue coloured silk thread and apply Fevicol to it. Let leave to dry.


Repeat the same procedure for remaining bangle.


Apply glue alternatively on the bangle and stitch the gold colour drop-shaped kundans and repeat same process to another bangle.


Measure big gold ball chain around the kundan and cut into required measurements.


Apply glue around the kundans and stitch gold ball chains to both bangles.


Measure size wise big gold ball chains around the big gold ball chain and cut into required measurements.


Apply glue aroung big gold ball chains of both bangles and stitch the required measurements on the glue.


Leave it for few minutes to dry.


Dark Royal Blue Colour Silk Thread Bangles matches to Long frocks, designer sarees, half-sarees, churidars etc,.


SIMPLE AND UNIQUE MODELS IN SILK THREAD JHUMKAS


How to make sea green silk thread jhumkas


Small Sea green silk thread jhumkas in easy way 1

Required Materials:


Jhumka moulds


Sea green silk threads


Pearl chains


Gold balls


Head pins


Bead caps


Gold ball chains or any available beads


Fevicol tube


Scissors, Pillers & Cutters


Hooks or any readymade studs


Exam pad or chopping board to wrap thread


Jhumkas Making:


Step-1:


Wrap Strings of threads on exam pad as 30 layers..


Grab the threads and apply little fevicol on it.


Now cut it in the half and make sure to apply fevicol on both sides.


Hold jhumka mould in a hand.


One side should be Flat and other should be Twisted a bit and would be our needle.


Step-2:


Insert FLAT side from top of the mould and then start wrapping. Spread the threads properly and wrap it tight.


Wrap it by giving little gaps just because the circumference of top circle and down circle differs, so we get overlaps on top.


Finish the Jhumka in two rounds.


Make sure, inner side of the Jhumka also looks good with full thread wrap.


Glue it inside of the mould.


Follow the same process for the other one as well.


Step-3:


Two Jhumkas are ready to play with Unique ideas (innovative).


Glue would be biggest enemy for Silk Thread, if you apply more glue threads turn black so take care of it.


For the decoration apply little fevicol threads at the bottom and start adding pearl chain.


After adding pearl chain and again apply glue on the pearl chain. Stitch two lines of gold ball chains to finish the party wear look.


Step-4:


Sea green silk thread jhumkas in easy way 2

Fixing the studs and other embellishments.


Take the head pin and insert into bead cap (downward direction as shown in the picture it heps to hold Jhumka properly from the bottom).


Take if out from the mould.


Now add one more bead cap on top of the Jhumka followed by Stone Ball.


Trim excess Head Pin and bead it with pillars and add hook to it and close at top and bottom of jhumka with bead pin after inserting one pearl bead.


Jhumka would be ready to roll.


If in case you are using ready made studs add stud loop in place of hook.


Studded Jhumka will be ready.


How to make Handmade Jhumkas Studs


Handmade studs for jhumkas design 1

Required Materials:


Card pieces


Round-shaped half Pearl kundans


Small Pearl chains


Small Gold ball chains


Pearl balls


Gold Head Pins


Rubber Silicone


Fevicol tube


Scissors, Pillers and Cutters


Jhumkas Studs Making:


Handmade studs for jhumkas design 2

Step-1:


Take a Card piece and cut into round-shape. .


Apply a drop of favicol on the card piece.


Stitch round shaped half pearl bead.


Measure small gold ball chains and cut them into paticular measurements.


Apply glue around the half pearl bead and stitch two lines of small gold ball chains.


Measure samll pearl chains and cut it into required measurements.


Apply glue around small gold ball chains and stitch small pearl chain.


Leave it for few minutes to dry.


Step-2:


Handmade studs for jhumkas design 3

After drying hold stud in hand and apply glue at back of the stud.


Take gold head pin and stitch on it.


Let it be dry and after drying insert the rubber silicone into head pin.


Step-3:


Handmade studs for jhumkas design 4

Let's do the same procedure to another stud.


Simple Handmade studs are ready


Combination of Light Green and Gold colour threaded Jhumkas!


Light green and gold colour combo design 1

Required Materials:


Jhumka moulds


Light Green and Gold threads


Pearl chains


Pink ball chains


Head pins


Bead caps


Wooden beads


Pearl balls


Fevicol tube


Scissors, Pillers & Cutters


Handmade studs


Jhumkas Making:


Light green and gold colour combo design 2

Step-1:


Take a Jhumka mould. Measure the light green and gold coloured thread on the Jhumka mould. Cut the thread into that particular measuremants then apply glue with fevicol tube..


After applying glue then take a light green and gold coloured thread.


Stitch on the Jhumka mould.


Let it be dry.


Again measure Pearl chain on the jhumka and cut into that particular measurements.


Apply favicol glue on the bottom of jhumka.


Stitch Pearl chain on the jhumka.


Measure the pink ball chain on the jhumka.


Let's leave it to dry.


Step-2:


Take the head pin and insert into bead cap (downward direction as shown in the picture it heps to hold Jhumka properly from the bottom).


Take if out from the mould.


Now add one or more pearl beads on top of the Jhumka and followed by Stone Ball at the bottom of jhumka.


Trim excess Head Pin and bead it with pillars and add hook to it and close at top and bottom of jhumka with bead pin after inserting one pearl bead.


Jhumka would be ready to roll.


If in case you are using ready made studs add stud loop in place of hook.


So repeat same procedure to the another jhumka.


jhumkas are ready.


Dark green kundan motives silk jhumkas


Dark green jhumka design 1

Required Materials:


Jhumka moulds


Dark Green silk threads


Kundan motives


Head pins


Bead caps


Wooden beads


Colourful stone lace


Fevicol tube


Scissors, Pillers & Cutters


Handmade studs


Jhumkas Making:


Dark green jhumka design 2

Wrap Strings of threads on exam pad as 50 layers.


Grab the threads and apply little fevicol on it.


Now cut it in the half and make sure to apply fevicol on both sides.


Hold jhumka mould in a hand.


One side should be Flat and other should be Twisted a bit and would be our needle.


Step-2:


Insert FLAT side from top of the mould and then start wrapping. Spread the threads properly and wrap it tight.


Wrap it by giving little gaps just because the circumference of top circle and down circle differs, so we get overlaps on top.


Finish the Jhumka in two rounds.


Make sure, inner side of the Jhumka also looks good with full thread wrap.


Glue it inside of the mould.


Follow the same process for the other one as well.


Step-3:


Two Jhumkas are ready to play with Unique ideas (innovative).


Glue would be biggest enemy for Silk Thread, if you apply more glue threads turn black so take care of it.


Dark green jhumka design 3

Apply glue on jhumka alternatively to stitch Kundam motives.


Apply glue in between the Kundam motives to Stitch colourful stone laces.


Dark green jhumka design 4

Cut colouful stone laces into four colour stones in one sheet.


Apply glue on the bangle to stitch colourful stone sheet.


let it be dry.


Hold another jhumka and start doing design same as like before.


Step-4:


Dark green jhumka design 5

Fixing the studs and other embellishments.


Take the head pin and insert into bead cap (downward direction as shown in the picture it heps to hold Jhumka properly from the bottom).


Take if out from the mould.


Now add one more bead cap on top of the Jhumka followed by Stone Ball.


Trim excess Head Pin and bead it with pillars and add hook to it and close at top and bottom of jhumka with bead pin after inserting one pearl bead.


Jhumka would be ready to roll.


If in case you are using ready made studs add stud loop in place of hook.


A Combination of red and gold colour threaded jhumkas!


Red and gold combination design 1

Required Materials:


Jhumka moulds


Red and Gold threads


Small Gold ball chains


Big Gold ball chains


Gold beads


Head pins


Bead caps


Wooden beads


Fevicol tube


Scissors, Pillers & Cutters


Handmade studs


Jhumkas Making:


Red and gold combination design 2

Step-1:


Take a Jhumka mould. Measure the red and gold coloured thread on the Jhumka mould. Cut the thread into that particular measuremants then apply glue with fevicol tube..


After applying glue then take a red and gold coloured thread.


Stitch on the Jhumka mould.


Let it be dry.


Again measure Big gold balls chain on the jhumka and cut into that particular measurements.


Apply favicol glue on the bottom of jhumka.


Stitch big gold balls chain on the jhumka.


Measure the small gold balls chain on the jhumka and stitch small gold balls chain above big gold balls chain.


Let's leave it to dry.


Step-2:


Red and gold combination design 3

Take the head pin and insert into bead cap (downward direction as shown in the picture it heps to hold Jhumka properly from the bottom).


Take if out from the mould.


Now add one or more pearl beads on top of the Jhumka and followed by Stone Ball at the bottom of jhumka.


Trim excess Head Pin and bead it with pillars and add hook to it and close at top and bottom of jhumka with bead pin after inserting one pearl bead.


Jhumka would be ready to roll.


If in case you are using ready made studs add stud loop in place of hook.


So repeat same procedure to the another jhumka.


How to make simple and easy sea green silk thread jhumkas


Simple and easy handmade sea green silk thread design 1

Required Materials:


Jhumka moulds


Sea green silk threads


White stone sheets


Small Gold balls chains


Head pins


Bead caps


Fevicol tube


Scissors, Pillers & Cutters


Hooks or any readymade studs or handmade studs


Exam pad or chopping board to wrap thread


Jhumkas Making:


Simple and easy handmade sea green silk thread design 2

Step-1:


Wrap Strings of threads on exam pad as 50 layers..


Grab the threads and apply little fevicol on it.


Now cut it in the half and make sure to apply fevicol on both sides.


Hold jhumka mould in a hand.


One side should be Flat and other should be Twisted a bit and would be our needle.


Step-2:


Insert FLAT side from top of the mould and then start wrapping. Spread the threads properly and wrap it tight.


Wrap it by giving little gaps just because the circumference of top circle and down circle differs, so we get overlaps on top.


Finish the Jhumka in two rounds.


Make sure, inner side of the Jhumka also looks good with full thread wrap.


Glue it inside of the mould.


Follow the same process for the other jhumka as same.


Step-3:


Both Jhumkas are ready to play with Unique ideas (innovative).


Glue would be biggest enemy for Silk Thread, if you apply more glue threads turn black so take care of it.


For the decoration apply little fevicol threads at the bottom and start stitching two white stone sheets after measuring.


Apply glue to Stitch a samll line of gold ball chain to finish the bridal look.


Step-4:


Simple and easy handmade sea green silk thread design 3

Fixing the studs and other embellishments.


Take the head pin and insert into bead cap (downward direction as shown in the picture it heps to hold Jhumka properly from the bottom).


Take if out from the mould.


Now add one more bead cap on top of the Jhumka followed by Stone Ball.


Trim excess Head Pin and bead it with pillars and add hook to it and close at top and bottom of jhumka with bead pin after inserting one pearl bead.


Jhumka would be ready to roll.


use handmade studs add stud loop in place of hook.


Bridal Jhumka are ready to wear.


How to make beautiful light green silk thread jhumkas


Beautious light green handmade light green silk thread design 1

Required Materials:


Jhumka moulds


lightgreen silk threads


Half pearl kundans


Small Gold balls chains


Gold colour flower beads


Head pins


Bead caps


Fevicol tube


Scissors, Pillers & Cutters


Hooks or any readymade studs or handmade studs


Exam pad or chopping board to wrap thread


Jhumkas Making:


Step-1:


Wrap Strings of threads on exam pad as 50 layers.


Grab the threads and apply little fevicol on it.


Now cut it in the half and make sure to apply fevicol on both sides.


Hold jhumka mould in a hand.


One side should be Flat and other should be Twisted a bit and wold be our needle.


Step-2:


Insert FLAT side from top of the mould and then start wrapping. Spread the threads properly and wrap it tight.


Wrap it by giving little gaps just because the circumference of top circle and down circle differs, so we get overlaps on top.


Finish the Jhumka in two rounds.


Make sure, inner side of the Jhumka also looks good with full thread wrap.


Glue it inside of the mould.


Follow the same process for the other jhumka as same.


Step-3:


Beautious light green handmade light green silk thread design 2

Both Jhumkas are ready to play with Unique ideas (innovative).


Glue would be biggest enemy for Silk Thread, if you apply more glue threads turn black so take care of it.


Apply fevicol at the bottom of jhumka and stitch small pearl chain.


Measure small gold ball chain above the pearl chain and cut into required measurements.


Apply glue to stitch two small gold ball chains and also apply glue alternatively to stitch round shaped half pearl kundans.


Stitch gold flower design beads in between pearl kundans.


Step-4:


Beautious light green handmade light green silk thread design 3

Fixing the studs and other embellishments.


Take the head pin and insert into bead cap (downward direction as shown in the picture it heps to hold Jhumka properly from the bottom).


Take if out from the mould.


Now add one more bead cap on top of the Jhumka followed by Stone Ball.


Trim excess Head Pin and bead it with pillars and add hook to it and close at top and bottom of jhumka with bead pin after inserting one pearl bead.


Jhumka would be ready to roll.


use handmade studs add stud loop in place of hook.


Bridal Jhumka are ready to wear.


How to make elegant red silk thread jhumkas


Red colour silk thread design 1

Required Materials:


Jhumka moulds


red silk threads


Gold Bally rings


Gold pearl lureal charms


Gold ball chains


Gold balls


Pearl balls


Gold plated flower bead caps


Scissors


Exam pad


Fevicol glue


Head pins


Hooks


Jhumkas Making:


Step-1:


Wrap Strings of red colour silk threads on exam pad as 30 layers..


Grab the threads and apply little fevicol on it.


Now cut it in the half and make sure to apply fevicol on both sides.


Hold jhumka mould in a hand.


One side should be Flat and other should be Twisted a bit and would be our needle.


Insert FLAT side from top of the mould and then start wrapping. Spread the threads properly and wrap it tight.


Wrap it by giving little gaps just because the circumference of top circle and down circle differs, so we get overlaps on top


Finish the Jhumka in two rounds.


Make sure, inner side of the Jhumka also looks good with full thread wrap.


Glue it inside of the mould.


Follow the same process for the other jhumka as same.


Both Jhumkas are ready to play with Unique ideas (innovative).


Glue would be biggest enemy for Silk Thread, if you apply more glue threads turn black so take care of it.


Measure the gold ball chain around the jhumkas. Apply fevicol at the bottom of jhumka and stitch gold ball chain.


Top of the gold ball chain again apply glue and stitch another gold ball chain.


Repeat the same procedure for the another jhumka.


Take a gold bally ring and insert pearl beads, gold pearl lureal charms and the bally ring.


Repeat the same procedure for another bally ring.


Hold both the bally ring and jhumka lock with gold ring.


Repeat the same procedure for another jhumka.


Step-2:


Red colour silk thread design 2

Fixing the studs and other embellishments.


Take the head pin and insert into bead cap (downward direction as shown in the picture it heps to hold Jhumka properly from the bottom).


Take if out from the mould.


Now add one more bead cap on top of the Jhumka followed by Stone Ball.


Trim excess Head Pin and bead it with pillars and add hook to it and close at top and bottom of jhumka with bead pin after inserting one pearl bead.


Jhumka would be ready to roll.


use handmade studs add stud loop in place of hook/bally rings.


How to make Simple green colour silk thread jhumkas


Green colour silk thread design 1

Required Materials:


Jhumka moulds


green silk threads


Gold Bally rings


Gold pearl lureal charms


Gold ball chains


Gold balls


Pearl balls


Half- beaded Pearl balls


Gold plated flower bead caps


Scissors


Exam pad


Fevicol glue


Head pins


Hooks


Jhumkas Making:


Step-1:


Wrap Strings of green colour silk threads on exam pad as 30 layers.


Grab the threads and apply little fevicol on it.


Now cut it in the half and make sure to apply fevicol on both sides.


Hold jhumka mould in a hand.


One side should be Flat and other should be Twisted a bit and would be our needle.


Insert FLAT side from top of the mould and then start wrapping. Spread the threads properly and wrap it tight.


Wrap it by giving little gaps just because the circumference of top circle and down circle differs, so we get overlaps on top


Finish the Jhumka in two rounds.


Make sure, inner side of the Jhumka also looks good with full thread wrap.


Glue it inside of the mould.


Follow the same process for the other jhumka as same.


Both Jhumkas are ready to play with Unique ideas (innovative).


Green colour silk thread design 1

Glue would be biggest enemy for Silk Thread, if you apply more glue threads turn black so take care of it.


Measure pearl chain to the jhumka and cut into the appropriate measurements for both the jhumkas. Apply the glue and stitch the measured pearl chain on the bottom of the jhumka. Repeat the same for the another jhumka also.


Measure the gold ball chain around the jhumkas. Apply fevicol at the bottom of jhumka and stitch gold ball chain.


Top of the gold ball chain again apply glue and stitch another gold ball chain.


Repeat the same procedure for the another jhumka.


Take a gold bally ring and insert pearl beads, gold pearl lureal charms and the bally ring.


Repeat the same procedure for another bally ring.


Hold both the bally ring and jhumka lock with gold ring.


Repeat the same procedure for another jhumka.


On the both jhumkas apply glue alternatively and stitch half-beaded pearl.


Measure small gold ball chains around the half-beaded pearl as a drop shaped and cut into that appropriate measurements. Apply glue around the half-beaded pearl as in the shape of drop and stitch around it. Like wise repeat same procedure for another jhumka also.


Fixing the studs and other embellishments.


Take the head pin and insert into bead cap (downward direction as shown in the picture it heps to hold Jhumka properly from the bottom).


Take if out from the mould.


Now add one more bead cap on top of the Jhumka followed by Stone Ball.


Trim excess Head Pin and bead it with pillars and add hook to it and close at top and bottom of jhumka with bead pin after inserting one pearl bead.


Jhumka would be ready to roll.


use handmade studs add stud loop in place of hook/bally rings.


BLUE COLOUR CHANDBALI EARRINGS


Blue earrings

Required Materials:


Round shaped plastic rings


plastic rings

Blue colour silk threads


Big Gold ball chains


Pearl chains


Pearl balls


Small gold ball chains


Big pearl chains


Half beaded pearl balls


Round shaped card pieces


Scissors


Exam pad


Fevicol glue


Head pins


Hooks


Chandbali Making:


Wrap blue colour silk thread to a exam pad or chopped pad with 30 layers. Cut at top or bottom of the pad with scissors and use glue to stitch the holdedone. Let it be dry for some time. Do as well as another one like before one.


Hold the stitched end and apply glue inside of the round shaped plastic ring. Stick the blue colour silk thread on the glue and let's we wait for few seconds to dry.


Start wrapping the silk thread completely the whole plastic ring and leave some space at top of the ring for stud.


Measure the big pearl chain on the edge of chandbali and cut the pearl line with required measurements.


Likewise measure big gold ball chain next to the big pearl chain and cut into measurements.


Apply glue next to the big pearl chain and stitch the big pearl chain. Let us wait for few seconds to dry.


Likewise do second one also and both chandbalis are ready.


Studs are already made or readymade antique or oxidized antique studs are available as per your like you could wear by your taste.


Here I have used my handmade studs with small gold ball chain, small pearl chain, half round shaped pearl ball, etc,.


So, we made chandbali earrings and ready to wear for occasionally, formally, tradionally etc,.


GRAND LOOKING JHUMKAS


stone line jhumkas

Required Materials:


Red colour silk threads


Big Gold ball chains


Stone line chains


Small gold ball chains


Half beaded pearl balls


Readymade studs


Scissors


Exam pad


Fevicol glue


Head pins


Hooks


Jhumkas Making:


Wrap Strings of red colour silk threads on exam pad as 30 layers.


Apply glue inside of the jhumka mould and stitch the thread start wraping to that mould. Wait for few seconds to dry. Likewise do the another mould also .


So both jhumkas has ready to design.


Apply glue a finger gap and stitch the half-beaded pearl.


Measure small gold ball chain and into required measurements.


Apply glue and stitch measured small gold ball chain.


Likewise do remaining all beads and also another jhumkas.


Measure stone line chain around the small gold ball chain and cut into required measurements. Apply glue next to the small gold ball chain and stitch to it.


Like wise measure big gold ball chain next to the stone line and cut into required measurements. Apply glue and stitch it. Do for remaining pattern on same and different jhumkas.


Apply glue at center of both jhumkas and stitch flower bead.


HOW TO MAKE GRAND LOOKING STUD:


We need a half beaded pearl, small gold ball chain, big gold ball chain, stone line, cardboard sheet .


Cut cardboard into two one rupee coin size or more than that size and its for grand looking.


Apply glue at center of the both cardboards and stitch half-beaded pearl. Measure small gold ball chain around half-beaded pearl and cut into required measurents. Apply glue and stitch small gold ball chain. Measure white stone chain around it and apply glue stitch the stone line.


Measure small gold ball chain around stone line and cut into required measurements. Stitch small gold ball chain around it. Measure white stone line around the small gold ball line and cut into required measurements. Apply glue and stitch to it.


Measure stone line around small gold ball chain and stitch to it. Measure big gold ball chain around white stone chain and stitch to it. Like wise do for remaining cardboard stud.


Red colour Silk Thread Jhumkas are looking gorgeous and mainly uses in grand weddings, receptions, parties, kiddy parties, birthday parties etc,.


Grey Silk Thread Jhumkas


Grey Jhumkas

Required Materials:

Small size Plastic jhumkas moulds

Grey colour silk threads

Round Pearl Balls

Silver Balls Chains

Readymade oxidised peacock studs

Fabric glue

Scissors

Jhumkas Making:

Wrap Strings of grey colour silk threads on exam pad as 30 layers.


Apply glue inside of the jhumka mould and stitch the thread start wraping to that mould. Wait for few seconds to dry. Likewise do the another mould also.


So both jhumkas has ready to design.


Measure for both the jhumkasand also measure silver balls chain on bottom of the jhumkas and cut into appropriate measurements.


Apply glue and stick silver ball chains as double lined chains.


At the center of the both jhumkas hang a gold round shaped ring and fix pearl ball.


Top of the both jhumkas stick a silver flower pattern cap.


Attach oxidised silver colour peacock stud to the jhumkas.


Grey Silk Thread Jhumkas matches to Salwar suits, Punjabi churidars, Long Frocks, Fancy Sarees etc,.


CLAY ARTICLES:


DIY MINI SUCCULENTS WITH POTTERY


Diy Miniature Succulent With Pottery

Required Materials:


Green colour air dry clay


White colour air dry clay


Black colour arylic paint


Pink colour arylic paint


Flat and Pointed Paint brushes


Brown colour air dry clay


Knife


Water


Small barble stones


Toothpick


Making:


Take white colour air dry clay and roll out.


After rolling, make it as a solid clay and press it well.


Use your finger and slowly press the edges and make it as a pot.


Take green colour air dry clay and press it well.


Take knife and cut into small pieces and press at the top and bottom of the pieces softly. Place all the pieces in the form of layered.


Choose brown colour air dry clay, press it well.


Take a small piece from it and roll it.


Hold toothpick in your fingers and make small holes on the rolled clay.


Keep it aside for sometime.


Place already made air dry clay pot and fill with pointed brown colour clay already placed aside on it.


Now use knife for small clay succulents to place top of the brown sheet clay and slowly press to stitch it. Place small barble stones around layered succulent.


Place a plate aside and pour white colour arylic paint, pink colour arylic paint.


Choose flat brush to paint and dip into water.


Take pot and brush with white colour arylic paint half of the pot.


Remaining half of the pot colour with pink colour arylic paint.


Dip pointed brush into black aryclic colour paint bottle and design on pot as like smiley emoji.


Simple mini air dry clay succulents vase ready to place in the shelf.


NATURE:


Road trips

Nature is a Calming Restorative Tonic for Body and Soul.


It make us feel good mentally and physically, too.


BEST INDOOR PLANTS


All of these indoor plants take up minial space (but don't worry, there are some trees if you have just a bit more room to work with), and many even require less sun, which is a must when you only have a few windows to work with.


And if you don't have much of a green thumb- hey, you'll get there! most of these plants are fairly easy to keep alive.


No matter your skill level, your taste, or how much space you have to spare, there's a houseplant for you here. Your indoor garden paradise dreams are about to become a reality.


Some of Indoor plants are Money plants, ZZ Plant, Coffee Plant, Red Aglaonema, Rubber Plants, String of Pearls, Pilea, Fiddle Leaf Figs, Sweetheart Plant, Anthurium Plant, Bird of Paradise, Snake pLant, Begonia, Yucca Cane Plant, Kalanchoe, Calatheas, Air Plants, Weeping Fig, Peace Lilies, Split Leaf Philodendrons, Asparagus Fern, Jade Plants, Cacti, Alocasia, Staghorn Fern, Crocodile Fern, Aloe Plant, Dragon Tree, English Ivy, Golden Pothos, Spider Plants, Bromeliad, Kentia Palm, Philodendron, Croton, Gardenia.


INDOOR PLANTS GOOD FOR HEALTH


House plants are good for your health and not just for their visual beauty.


Studies have proven that indoor plants improve concentration and productivity (by upto 15%), reduce stress levels and boost your mood making them perfect for not just your home but your workspace too.


Improves air quality and humidity levels, reduce stress, make people calmer and happier.


Save energy.


Absorb Noise.


Clean indoor air by absorbing toxins, increasing humidity and producing oxygen.


DO YOU KNOW ABOUT MONEY PLANT


money plant

Money Plant scientific name is Epipremnum areum.


It is also known as Devil's ivy, Pothos, Golden Pothos and from Southeastern Asia.


Money Plant has Heart-shaped leaves,leathery,shiny surface and the leaves are arranged alternately on long leaf-stalks.


It comes in many varieties with leaves in white, yellow, and in light green.


It can also be used as aquarium plants, can be placed on top of the aquarium and roots merged into the water, it has power to maintain the aquarium environment.


It has power in controlling indoor pollution.


HOW TO START GROWING MONEY PLANTS IN POTS


Money plant growing in pots

Money plant can be easily propagated from the cutting. When You are growing from the cutting, place the cutting small container or bottle filled with water for a couple of weeks.


Once you see the development of roots, transplant into the desired container. This process helps the plant to grow faster and healthier.


HOW TO GROW MONEY PLANTS IN GLASS JAR


Money plant can be easily grow into the water. One must keep atleast one node below the water level for proper growth.


One can also fold the branch inside the water so that more nodes can be included in water to promote roots at all nodes.


The money plant container must be kept near sunlight which promotes growth.


In fact, your plant may be more likely to thrive there. Since money tree plants prefer bright, indirect sunlight. Direct sunlight can burn their leaves, so find a spot away from the window.


HOW DO YOU PROPAGATE EPIPREMNUM AUREUM


To get a cutting for Pothos propagation, follow these steps:


Trim 4-6 inch piece just below a root node.


Ideally, the cutting will have 4+ leaves and at least two growth nodes.


Pothos plant / Devil's Ivy plant propagation can be done in water or soil, but once it begins, the plant has difficult switching to the other growing medium.


If you place the cutting in water, the plant should remain in water once it grows larger.


The same goes for a cutting propagated in the soil.


DOES MONEY PLANT GROW BETTER EITHER IN WATER OR SOIL


You have to decide where you want to grow this plant ie, in soil or in water.


It has no problem in sustaining both in soil or water but don't make the mistake of replacing it from soil to water and vice-versa.


The Money Plants growing in water would have softer leaves as compared to the ones growing in soil.


This Money plant demands an adequate amount of water in its intial days.


So, when you have got a fresh new Money Plant - don't forget to water it well but again it should not be fully soaked in water.


The Money plant doesn't require direct sun rays and thus the shady areas can also be lit up with the presence of a money plant.


Every branch of a Money Plants consists of 5 leaves that grow for 12 inches. These leaves are green in color and shiny in apperance.


HOW DO YOU GROW DEVIL'S IVY PLANT FROM A LEAF


Snip a small length of stem just under the woody protrusions of the leaves.


Cut the stem of your plants at an angle, this helps it take in water until it takes root.


Place them in Glass jar so just the rootsare sitting on water.


Don't allow leaves to sit in water.


Cuttings need partial sun-a windowsill with bright, filtered light is best.


Leave for about 2 weeks until you see good protruding roots.


Transfer your new plant into moist potting soil.


2 weeks later.... It's as simple as that! Now I have a new Devil's Ivy waiting to grow long and luscious.


HOW DO YOU MAKE DEVIL'S IVY BUSHIER


To get that bushy look, Pothos plants require a pruning routine.


If you don't prune them, the stems will keep trailing and looking thinner and thinner.


They'll often grow into areas with even less light, leading to more sparse leaves and an overall non-sculpted look.


SOME OF THE BENEFITS OF MONEY PLANTS


It energizes the home by filtering air and increasing oxygen inflow.


Placing a money plant infront of a sharp corner or angle reduces Anxiety and Stress.


It also helps avoid arguments and sleep disorders.


Feng Shui experts recommended keeping one plant near each computer, television, or wifi router.


UNBELIEVABLE FACTS


In fact, it is an ideal bedroom plant.


Money plant continues to produce oxygen at night unlike other plants that produce carbondioxide at night.


Improper soil moisture in particular, overwatering cause of Yellowing leaves.


Yellowing leaves are caused by nutritional deficiency, which if rectified, could cause the green colour to return.


The most common factors for yellowing money plant leaves are too much of sunlight, wide range of temperature fluctuations throughout the day and or over-watering.


It is best to keep the plant away from sunlight and in a neutral location as to temperature.


Avoid placing it next to windows and vents.


You can keep Money Plant in the bedroom. But if you must, you could place it either on the left or right side of the bed.


Under no circumstances should the plant be kept near the headrest or the footrest of the bed, say Vastu experts.


Money plants are easily grown through stem cuttings and can be placed either in a water-filled vessel or in a plant pot.


It is important to replace the water regularly.


This is one peculiar husehold minimum care. It can be kept in partial shade. It needs to be watered occasionally in 10 days, and more frequently if the indoor air is dry.


Thie stem of money plant are thin, long, weak and spread on the ground. Thus it is called a creeper.


Bean Stalk, ground plants and grape vines have weak stem but readily climbs up a neighbouring supprt or a tree. These plants are called Climbers.


SUCCULENTS


Succulents are plants with parts that are thickened, fleshy, and engorged, usually to retain water in arid climates or soil conditions.


In horizontal use, the term succukent is sometimes used in a way that excludes plants that botanists would regard as succulents, such as cacti. Succulnts are often grown as ornamental plants because of their striking and unsual appearence, as well as their ability to thrive with relatively minimal care.


Many plant families have multiple succulents species found within them (more than 25 plant families). In some families, such as Aizoaceae, Cactacea, and Crassulaceae, most species are succulents. The habitats of these water preserving plants are often in areas with high temperatures and low rainfall, such as deserts.


Succulents have the ability to thrive on limited water sources, such as mist and dew, which makes them equipped to survive in an ecosystem that contains scarce water sources.


A houseplant is a plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices, namely for decorative purposes, but studies have also shown them to have positive psychological effects and as well as help with indoor air purification, since some species, and the soil-dewelling mocrones associated with them, reduce indoor air pollution by absorbing volatile organic compounds including benzene , formaldehyde, and trichloroethylene.


While generally toxic to humans, such pollutants are absorbed by the plants and its soil-dwelling microbes without harm. Common houseplants are usually tropical or semi-tropical epiphytes, succulents or cacti. Houseplants need the correct moisture, light levels, soil mixture, temperature, and humidity. As well, houseplants need the proper fertilizer and correct-sized pots.


ECHEVERIA


Echeveria is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Crassulaceae, native to semi-desert areas of Central America, Mexico and northwestern South America.


PACHYVERIA


Pachyveria is a hybrid succulent. They typically grow to 2-6 inches. They grow best in soil full of phosphorus and potassium, but low in nitrogen Pachyveria are a hybrid cross between Pachyphytum and Echeveria. Pachyveria glauca 'Little Jewel' is a cultivar of Pachyveria.


The cultivation of Pachyveria should be done with a substantial and very draining land, composed of fertilized soil and coarse sand. This type of plant prefers a sunny position that will allow the plant to take on acompact and rather low aspect. The watering will have to be rather abudant during the summer and gradually during the winter. The winter temperature should not be less than about 7 degrees Celcius, even if the plants bear lower temperatures. Many of the cultivated plants are similar to one or another species from which the crossing has composed and they easily develop in the shape of more or less abnormal ridges. This kind of plants is very sought after by collectors and specialists.



LITTLE JEWEL

Scientific name: Pachyveria glauca


Kingdom: Plantae


Family: Crassulaceae


Genus: Pachyphytum


Cultivar: 'Little Jewel'


Order: Saxifragales


Pachyveria glauca

The little jewel jas cylindrical tapered leaves, shading from powdery blue with a purple at the bottom of the succulent to a light green at the points of the top leaves. That colour slowly darkens down the length of the plant. Leaves resemble gems jewels.


This plant propagates itself by dropping leaves, which then sprout new plants, and also by stem cuttings.


TYPES TO PROPAGATE LITTLE JEWEL EASILY


When taking a leaf for propagation, gently twist the leaf from the stem. Be sure that the leaf you get a 'clean pull', where no part of the leaf is left on the stem. This will give you a better chance of a successful propagation.


It is not uncommon for Pachyveria glauca to 'drop leaves'. Although this is not to be confused with signs of over-watering you can collect the dropped leaves and propagate them as well! allow the leaf to callous over for a day or two before placing it on well-draining soil.


Propagation of Little Jewel Type 1:


Use a sterile, sharp knife or pair of scissors to grow 'Little Jewel' from cuttings.


Remove a stem from the main plant, and allow it to callous for several days before placing on well-draining soil.


Water whenever the soil has dried out completely.


Propagation of Little Jewel Type 2:


Remove a leaf gently from the plant bottom because the tip pf the plant leaf is thin and delicate.


Plant bottom leaves are thick.


Leaves are too fleshy.


If the leaf broken off then the leaf won't root.


To take cuttings for succulent leaf propagation, hold the end of the leaf and gently wiggle it until it break off.


If the succulents leaf broke in half when you tried to remove it, then discard that leaf and try again.


Propagation of Little Jewel Type 3:


Hold the leaf gently without breaks from the plant and remove it.


Place a glass jar, fill the glass jar with water fully.


Close the glass jar with a polythin cover and make holes.


Now, take the leaves which has already picked from the succulent and put each leaf on the polythin cover holes.


CHLOROPHYTUM COMOSUM


Spider plant

The scientific name of spider plant is Chlorophytum comosum, Family is Asparagaceae, Higher classification is Chlorophytum, Kingdom is Plantae, order is Asparagales. Spider plants are known primarily for their long grass like leaves, but they also produce clusters of small white flower blooms that mature to form baby spider plantlets, commonly referred to as spiderettes. Chlorophytum comosum often called spider plant but also known as airplane plant, St. Bernard lily, Spider ivy, ribbon plant, and hen and chickens is a species of perennial flowering plant.


Spider plant commonly grown as ornamental houseplant.


HOW TO PROPAGATE CHLOROPHYLLUM COMOSUM


The propagation of spider plant involoves planting the spiderette in a pot filled with any lightweight potting mix. Be sure the pot has drainage holes in the bottom. You can leave the baby attatched to the parent plant until the new plant takes root, then seperate it from the parent plant by snipping the runner. Spiderettes will root easily, if you have a hanging spider plant, the latter is the best way to go.


If we want a thick bushy plant, then start planting several plants in same pot. Water the fledgling spider babies as needed to keep the soil slightly moist, but never saturated, until healthy new growth indicates the plant has rooted. Your new spider plant is well on its way, and you can resume normal care.


Spider plants are easy to grow, adaptable houseplants, making them one of the most popular indoor plants among gardeners. For anyone looking to start a home container garden. Spider plants grow well in both pots and hanging baskets.


Water regularly with filtered water. Tap water in many areas has traces of harmful minerals that cause spider plants to develop brown leaf tips. To avoid brown tips, water using room temperature filtered or distilled water. Avoid overwatering keeping your soil moist but not waterlogged in order to prevent root tot. Spider plant should only need water once or twice a week during its first growing season. In later year you can typically water less frequently, especially during the winter months. Keep the temperature moderate whether indoors or outdoors, spider plants grow best in tempearatues between fifty degrees and eighty degrees fahrenheit. Spider plants also thrive in humid environments, so if necessary, mist their leaves to keep them moist. For an indoor spider plant, you can even place it near a huidifier or bring it into the nathroom when you take a hot showers.


Plant in well draining soil. Spider plants can grow in a variety of soil types as long as they have good drainage. For indoor plants, moist high quality potting soils should do the trick, or you can also choose a well aerated potting mix containing vermiculite. For outdoor plants, a sandy soil typically has sufficient drainage.


Re-pot once spider plant is root bound. When spider plant outgrows its container, it becomes root bound- meaning its roots have run out of space. You'll know the plant is root-bound when roots emerge from the pot's drainage holes. When repotting, make sure to use fresh soil, and choose a new container that's a few inches wider.


Spider plant

I have grown spider plants in my home like indoor plants and decorated nicely to the wall of balcony. I'm growing spider plants in pots and as well as glass jars.Very important point is while planting a spider plant into the soil, garderners has to remember that pot should has drains for outflow of water.


Propagating your spider plants is a simpe way to add new plants to your houseplant collection.


There are two main methods of propagating spider plants:


The easiest propagation technique is to divide a spider plant that has grown too large for its container. When you re-pot the plant, remove a smaller portion of the mother plant's root ball and leaves. Plant the new plantlet in a small pot.


Another one propagation option is to remove plantlets that grow in your mother plant's contaoner and root them in a cup or bowl of filtered water. Keep all the roots submerged underwater, but make sure the water level doesn't reach any leaves. Place your plantlet in indirect light, and replace its water daily to avoid bacteria buildup. Once your plantlet has a strong root system, transplant it into its own pot.


BOUGAINVILLEA


plant

The scientific name is Bougainvillea glabra, Family is Nyctaginaceae, Higher classification is Bougainvillea, Kingdom is Plantae, order is Carryphyllalesa.


Bougainvillea glabra, the lesser bougainvillea or paperflower, is the most common species of bougainvillea used for bonsai. The epithlet 'glabra' comes from Latin and means "bald".


HOW TO PROPAGATE BOUGAINVILLEA GLABRA


Bougainvillea is a sun-lover and it will grow best in a full sun position, in the open, facing due North (in the southern hemisphere) and due South (in the northern hemisphere). Bougainvillea needs at least six hours of full sun every day to thrive..


Bougainvillea won't do well in soil that retains too much water, so make sure the soil drains quite well. You may want to consider adding some sand, peat moss, perlite, or vermiculite to the soil. You can also plant on a slope to help promote drainage. .


Dig a hole as deep as the bougainvillea plant's root ball. Add a high-phosphate fertilizer to the hole to promote root growth and help the flowers bloom. Lift the bougainvillea plant from its container and tickle the roots, then wet the root ball into the hole. Lightly pat the soil around the base of the plant..


Bougainvillea plants weaken with too much watering, ending up with all leaf growth in place of flowers. On the other hand, letting the soil dry out will cause the plant to get stressed out. Find a happy medium - water enough to keep the soil damp, but not so much that you leave the plant waterlogged..


If you live in a climate that gets cold in the winter, and you planted your bougainvillea in a pot, bring it inside for the winter. If you leave it outside it will not survive the harsh weather.


Bougainvillea plants are prolific growers and need good pruning to force blooming and retain a pretty shape. After the bougainvillea has finished blooming for the season, cut it back by a few inches. This will promote healthy growth in the spring.


Wear gloves when pruning bougainvillea. Some people can get a skin rash from pruning bougainvillea, similar to that from poison ivy. This is caused by the sap, not the leaves or stems.


Bougainvillea plants need support to cover a wall, fence, or other area. If you'd like the plant to grow in a certain vertical spot, you can hang rows of wire or string against the surface that you want covered. Tuck the bougainvillea branches behind these guidance supports at regular intervals. Keep a close eye on growth and adjust as necessary until the bougainvillea starts covering the wall or other surface..


SHOE PLANT BLACK


Shoe plant black

The scientific name is Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Family is Malvaceae, Higher classification is Hibisceae, Kingdom is Plantae, order is Malvales.


Hybiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. The genus is quite large,comprising several hundred species that are native to warm temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world.


A Hibiscus plant will add immeasurable beauty to any home garden, with its array of colors giving out fragrances that are enticing and alluring. They bring rightness and glamor to a home, whether inside the house or outside in the garden


The hibiscus usually grows in tropical conditions, so that means it needs ample amount of sunlight. Give it around six hours of sunshine, and it will grow well.


In fact, the best place to grow the hibiscus is in a container so that they can be moved around quickly. Just remember to ensure that the soil in the container has excellent drainage so that the roots of the hibiscus can move around easily.


In the flowering stage, the hibiscus requires more water. During summers as well, it needs a fair bit of watering but not too much so as to drown the plant.


The hibiscus needs a large volume of nutrition in the growing stage. March to October is the crucial period, and this is when you should be using your fertilizer.


You can either add high potassium compost to the soil, use liquid fertilizer or a slow-release fertilizer. Iron and magnesium too are essential for plant growth.


The main aim behind pruning is to ensure that you’re getting a beautiful hibiscus for your garden. So, cut around one-third of the longer branches and remove any dead, weak or oddly shaped branches.


BENEFITS OF HIBISCUS FOR HAIR


In Ayurveda, Hibiscus is one of the most renowned herbs for promoting hair growth.


If you suffer from hair loss, then Hibiscus flowers and leaves will serve as the perfect remedy for you and stop hair fall. Both hibiscus flowers, as well as hibiscus leaves, are used to cure hair problems.


1. STIMULATES THE HAIR GROWTH


The naturally occurring amino acids in hibiscus flowers provide the hair with the nutrients help in promoting hair growth. These amino acids produce a special kind of structural protein called keratin, which is the building block of hair.


Keratin binds the hair makes them less prone to breakage. It also promotes the overall thickness of hair strands and makes hair more manageable. So, instead of turning to expensive keratin treatments that damage hair, you can start using Hibiscus on your hair.


2. CONDITIONER HAIR


The chemicals present in most of the shampoos strip the hair away from its natural oils.


Hibiscus flowers and leaves contain a high amount of mucilage which acts as a natural conditioner. It’s because of this naturally occurring conditioner that crushed Hibiscus flowers and leaves feel slimy to the touch.


3. PREVENTS BALDNESS


The use of hibiscus is as effective as the drugs used to treat baldness (Minoxidil and Finasteride). In addition to being equally effective, Hibiscus doesn’t cause any of the harmful side effects associated with these drugs!


4.TREATS DANDRUFF AND ITCHY SCALP


It acts like an astringent and reduces the oil secretion by the glands. Using Hibiscus leaves for hair maintains the pH balance of hair in addition to providing an overall soothing and cooling effect.


5. PREVENTS PREMATURE GREYING


Traditionally, Hibiscus was used as a natural dye to mask grey hair. The antioxidants and vitamins present in Hibiscus help in producing melanin, the naturally occurring pigment that gives hair its natural color.


HOW TO USE HIBISCUS FLOWER FOR HAIR


Both Hibiscus flower and Hibiscus leaves can be used for hair in multiple ways as both of them have immense benefits for the hair.


HIBISCUS OIL FOR HAIR NOURISHMENT


Hibiscus oil rejuvenates the scalp and promotes hair growth. In short, it provides your hair with all the above-mentioned benefits of hibiscus. You can use it on your hair thrice a week to provide deep nourishment and improve blood circulation.


PROCESS:


Hibiscus Hair Oil

To prepare Hibiscus oil at home, take about 8 hibiscus flowers and 8 hibiscus leaves and grind them into a fine paste.


Heat about a cup of coconut oil and add the paste to it.


Let the mixture heat together and then keep it aside to cool down.


Your hibiscus oil is ready to use. Massage your scalp with it for about 10 minutes and leave it on for about 30 minutes for best results.


After that, wash your hair and scalp with a mild cleanser.


HIBISCUS SHAMPOO FOR GENTLE CLEANING


Another great way to use Hibiscus for hair is in the form of shampoos. Because of their lather producing nature, Hibiscus leaves and flowers can be easily formulated into shampoos. Unlike other shampoos, natural shampoos made from Hibiscus cleanse the hair without stripping the scalp from its natural oils.


HIBISCUS CONDITIONER FOR SMOOTHER HAIR


The amino acids (Keratin) in Hibiscus make it an excellent conditioner. Hibiscus nourishes the hair follicles, soften the hair and make it more manageable.


HIBISCUS HAIR PACK FOR PREVENTING DANDRUFF


If you want to use Hibiscus to treat dandruff, then this specific hair pack will be most helpful.


PROCESS:


To prepare it, soak a tablespoon of fenugreek seeds in water overnight.


In the morning, grind these seeeds with a bunch of Hibiscus leaves to make a fine paste.


To this paste, add half a cup of buttermilk and grind again to make a smooth paste.


Apply this to your scalp and leave it on for an hour. Wash it off with a mild shampoo.


You can apply this hair pack once a week to get rid of dandruff.


COLEUS PLANT


Coleus Plant

The scientific name is Coleus Scutellanoides, Family is Lamiaceae, Higher classification is Coleus , Kingdom is Plantae, order is Lamiaies.


Coleus scutellarioides, commonly known as coleus, is a species of flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to southeast Asia through to Australia.


Coleus plants can grow in sun or shade


These are the newer varieties that have been propagated by cuttings. But the seed-grown varieties are more shade-tolerant.


Usually find these plants in flats with the bedding annuals.


But you might also find the giant Kong series and a couple of newer ones, such as ‘Chocolate Mint’ and ‘Chocolate-Covered Cherry’, with the 4-inch pots mixed in with the other container annuals. All plants can have color variation depending on maturity, fertilizer, temperature and light.


Light can affect leaf color on coleus plants


For the most part, coleus with red and orange leaves tolerate all-day full sun. Too much sun can cause purple-black ones to fade all over or they may scald (have pale burn spots on leaves). And for any color, too much shade can keep all the colors from coming out.


Coleus plants shrug off most problems


This is another reason why coleus are so popular. Keeping them healthy mostly depends on making sure the soil is evenly moist. Root rot and leaf drop can occur under prolonged cool, wet conditions. Conversely, plants will wilt and have less vibrant colors if you let them dry out often.


Watch out for cold snaps


To get the best selection, you might need to buy plants early. Keep them indoors in a sunny window, and wait to move them outside until nighttime temperatures stay in the 50s. Coleus won’t grow any faster if you put them out early, and you could actually stunt their growth or they might die, even if temperatures stay above freezing.


How to propagate coleus from cuttings


Coleus are only cold hardy in zones 10 to 11, and most gardeners in North America grow them as annuals. If you’ve never met a coleus plant you didn’t like, then you’ll surely want to know how to keep them growing from year to year. It’s a simple process to propagate new plants from one you admire. See the easy steps below to learn to take coleus cuttings of your own.


WELSH ONION


The scientific name is Allium fistulosum, Higher classification is Allium, order is Asparagales.


Allium fistulosum, the Welsh onion, also commonly called bunching onion, long green onion, Japanese bunching onion, and spring onion, is a species of perennial plant, often considered to be a kind of scallion.


Spring onions also grow in home and used in Indian recipes.


It grows in soil as well as water.


How to propagate Spring onions in water:


Roots

Take a glass jar. Place it near sunlight.


Choose a healthy onion and add water to just above the the water.


It takes a few days before you see the new growth and in about a week, you'll have a bunch of new spring onion shoots. These are the roots of the spring onions at just about 10 days.


You can re-grow the onions. Place the saved bulbs, roots down, in a glass jar with just enough water to cover the roots. Place the jar on a sunny windowsill and leave it alone apart from changing the water every few days. Green onion plants grow in water very quickly.


Roots

Cut the onions a couple inches above the roots and use the top green part to cook whatever you like.


A flavorful herb, spring onions are used in soups, dumplings, dips, marinades, stuffing, and stir-fries.Both the long, slender green tops and the small white bulb are edible, and are good either raw or cooked. They have a similar flavour to onions, but are much milder.


It's best to keep spring onions in the refrigerator. They contain more moisture than mature onions, so keeping them out at room temperature for longer than a couple of days could cause them to mold. Keep them in the crisper drawer, sealed well in a plastic bag, and they'll stay fresh for about two weeks. Spring onions are an excellent source of carotenoids and Vitamin A, that help in keeping the eyes healthy and prevent loss of vision. The sulphur compounds in spring onions make it an added boost for a healthy heart. With only 9.6 g of carbs, this barley soup qualifies as a healthy addition to a diabetic and low carb, weight loss menu too.


The entire onion, including the top, can be sliced and used raw in salads, as a garnish or cooked in stir fries. Spring onions are often used in Oriental cooking. Cut the green tops very finely and use like chives. Spring onions can be used instead of onions in some recipes.


Spring onion grow in Sun or partial shade.


CARE TIPS OF MONEY PLANT TO GROW FASTER


hydroponics 1

Money plant also called as Pothos and it comes in many coloured textured leaves like green, neon, marbled colour, green and white pattern and big size leaves etc. It's very good indoor plant as well as it puriies, very low maintainence and easy to grow plant which can be grown from its cuttings in soil and water boat.


1.Avoid growing in Plastic bottles


Never grow this plant in plastic bottle no matter whether you are growing in soil or water. Avoid plastic water bottles because it cotains harmful chemicals or toxins in it which can be harmful to the plant.


2.Frequently change water


Make sure to change water two to three times in a week. So that plant can get fresh oxygen and other important minerals from the fresh water.


hydroponics 2

3.Cut damaged/dried/yellow leaves


Make sure to cut damaged or dried or yellow leaves from the plant for healthy growth.


4.Loves indirect sunlight


Four days keep your plant in a place where it gets filtered sunlight. You can grow them indoors as well somewhere near windows should be the ideal place for growth.


5.Shower your plant


Occassionally give a good shower to your plant sp that all the dust will go off the plant and leaves will look good fresh.


MOSES IN THE CRADLE


moses in the cradle

The Scientific name is Tradescantia spathacea, Family: Commelinacea, Order: Commelinales, Kingdom: Plantae.


It is a herb in the Commelinaceae family. It is native to Belize, Gautemala, and Southern Mexico nut widely cultivated as an ornamental and naturalized in parts of Florida, Texas, Hawali, and various oceanic islands.


rheo known by a variety of names, including Moses-in-the-cradle, boat lily and oyster plant, this tropical perennial grows in low, spreading clumps that reach about one foot tall. The glossy, sword-shaped leaves are held upright, so both the deep green tops and rich purple undersides are visible.


The oyster plant likes indirect sunlight and will even do fairly well in partial shade. This makes them useful landscaping specimens. Having them fairly near a sunny window is usually sufficient for their light needs indoors.


Common names are Moses-in-a-Boat, Boat Lily, Cradle Lily, Moses-in-the-Bullrushes, Oyster Plant, Rhoeo discolor.


The very small three petaled white flowers of Moses-in-the-Cradle HousePlants are tucked away in a purple boat shaped bract in the leaf axil. This gives Moses-in-the-Cradle Houseplants their many common names. Treat Moses-in-the-Cradle HousePlants as you would Succulent Plants and it will grow beautifully.


LIGHTENING REQUIREMENTS


Moses in the Cradle Houseplants like very bright light for at least 6-8 hours a day.


CARE INSTRUCTIONS WATER


Allow the top inch or two of soil in Moses in the Cradle Houseplants to dry out before watering. Keep the soil of Moses in the Cradle Plants drier during the winter when house plants are not actively growing.


FERTILIZER


Feed Moses in the Cradle HousePlants monthly in the spring and summer with a well- balanced plant food at 1/2 the recommended strength.


TEMPERATURE


60-85 degrees (16-19C) is the best temperature for Moses-in-the- Cradle HousePlants. Moses in the Cradle Plants, or Oyster Plants as they are sometimes called, like to be a little cooler at night.


HUMIDITY


Moses in the Cradle HousePlants prefer medium to high humidity.

FLOWERING


Moses in the Cradle HousePlants produces small inconsequential three pedaled white flowers.


PESTS


spider mites and Mealy Bugs are the two main houseplant pests that may infest Moses in the Cradle Houseplants.


DISEASES


Because Moses in Cradle HousePlants like high humidity, root rot and leaf spot are two houseplant diseases that affect the plant.


SOIL


Use a good potting soil for Moses in the Cradle Houseplants that retains moisture yet drains quickly.


HOW TO GROW JASMINE PLANT


how to grow jasmine plant 1

The Scientific name is Jasminum, Family is Oleaceae, Higher Classification is Jasmineae, Kingdom is Plantae, Order is Lamiales, Rank is Genus.


Jasmine is a genus of shrubs and vines in the olive family. It contains around 200 species native to tropical and warm temperate regions of Eurasia and Oceania. Jasmines are widely cultivated for the characteristic fragrance of their flowers.


Other names of jasmine are Catalonina Jasmine, Common Jasmine, Italian Jasmine, Jasmin, Jasmin Blanc, Jasmin Commun, Jasmin d'Espagne, Jasmin à Grandes Fleurs, Jasmin Officinal, Jasmin Royal, Jasminum grandiflorum, Jasminum officinale, Jati, Jazmín, Jazmín Silvestre, Poet's Jessamine, Royal Jasmine, Spanish Jasmine.


The sweetly-scented jasmine flower can fill a room or a garden with its heady scent. Though jasmine is a vine usually grown outdoors, some varieties can also be grown as houseplants. There is some confusion regarding jasmine and which variety is fragrant.


how to grow jasmine plant 2

PLANTING


All jasmines prefer full sun to partial shade. The ideal planting position should be warm, sunny and sheltered.


They grow well in regular, well-drained garden soil with moderate levels of soil fertility and moisture.


Containerized plants are best planted in the fall.


If grown as a twining vine, jasmine will need to be supported on an arbor or trellis.


As a shrub, jasmine can get lanky and semi-vining so it needs frequent pruning. Common jasmine grows to a height of 10 to 15 feet as a lanky, semi-vining shrub, growing 12 to 24 inches a year. Winter jasmine shrub grow to 4 feet high and 7 feet wide.


If you’re going to grow jasmine as a shrub border, you can set them at least 8 feet apart.


JASMINE AS A HOUSEPLANT


Place in a partly sunny spot to encourage robust growth. Indoors, space near a south window and provide a trellis or support.


Indoors, jasmine needs to stay cool with well-circulated air. Try to keep the temperature between 60 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit.


Plant jasmine in porous material as well as bark, peat, and other soil that drains well. Soil needs to be moist but not soggy.


CARE


Tie the vine’s stems to a fairly heavy support.


Pinch the tips to stimulate lateral growth and prune after flowering if necessary to restrain growth.


If the vine is grown as a groundcover, trim the upward-twining stems. Additional plants can be propagated from stem cuttings.


If growing jasmine as a houseplant, soil should be moist and well-drained, but do not overwater. During the summer allow the soil to be moist and let it dry between waterings. Water less in the fall. In the winter and spring months keep the plant slightly dry.


Prune out thin, old shoots after flowering (which is spring) to shape the plant.


PURPLE HEART


Purple leaves

The scientific name is Tradescantia pallida, family is Commelinaceae, Higher classification is Spiderwort, Kingdom is Plantae, Order is Commelinales.


Tradescantia pallida is a species of spiderwort similar to T. fluminensis and T. zebrina. Other common names include purple secretia, purple-heart, and purple queen. It is native to the Gulf Coast region of eastern Mexico.


It grown as an ornamental for its striking purple foliage. Commonly called purple heart or purple heart wandering jew (and accasionally "Moses in the Basket", although this usually refers to a different species) this herbaceous plant in the Commelinaceae (spiderwort family) is a low-growing trailer that is hardy in zones 7-10, but is easily grown as an annual or houseplant in colder climates.


Dark purple, lance-shaped leaves upto 7" long are produced alternately on fleshy stems. The fleshy leaves are covered with pale hairs and form a sheath around the stem. The stems are quite fragile, and break off easily if brushed or kicked too hard.


In colder areas it will die back to the ground in winter, but comes back from the roots in spring. The rambling plants get about a foot high but can spread much wider.


From midsummer through fall, and sporadically at other times relatively inconspicuous pink or pale purple flowers with bright yellow stamens are produced at the ends of the stems. These 1/2" wide blooms have three petals typical of this genus.


Purple heart can be used as a ground cover, cascading in baskets, as a trailer in mixed containers or a houseplant. They are best used in masses for in ground plantings and will spread relatively quickly. The purple leaves are a nice contract to gold, chartreuse, or variegated foliage, and a great complement to pink, light purple, or burgundy blossoms on other plants. Pair it with complementary colors for bold combinations- chartreuse coleus, orage marigolds or red begonias.


Try using it in a container with 'Marguerite' ornamental sweet potato, golden creeping Jenny(Lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea' or other varieties) or light green asparagus fern. Or combine it with pnk or lavender verbena, coral - coloured scarlet sage (Salvia occinea 'Coral Nymph') or pink petunias. Other suggestions for harmonious combinations with pink or purple - flowered plants include four o'clocks (Mirabilis jalapa), lantana, sacveola, vinca(Catharantheus roseus) and Mexican petunia(Ruellia brittonia).


Grow purple heart in full sun for best color development, plants growing in shade tend more to green than purple. Pinch the plants to promote more compact growth. Plants are drought tolerant and thrive or neglect, but also tolerate frequent watering. Fertilize monthly when actively growing. Cut plants back after flowering to prevent them from getting spindly. If grown in containers to hold indoors over the winter or as houseplants, reduce watering during the winter and don't fertilize until new growth starts in spring.


HOW TO GROW ROSE PLANT FASTER


Rose plant faster

The scientific name is Rosa, family is Rosaceae, kingdom is Plantae, higher classification is Rosoideae, order is Rosales.


Most rose species are native to Asia, with smaller numbers being native to North America and a few to Europe and northwest Africa. Roses from different regions of the world hybridize readily, giving rise to types that overlap the parental forms, and making it difficult to determine basic species. Fewer than 10 species, mostly native to Asia, were involved in the crossbreeeding that ultimately produced today's many types of garden roses.


There are over three hundred species and tens of thousands of cultivars. They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles of various shapes and sizes, commonly called thorns. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compund(i.e., feature-formed), usually with oval leaflets that are sharply toothed.


The flowers of wid roses ususlly have five petals, whereas the flowers of cultivated roses are often double(i.e., with multiple sets of petals). Rose flowers' size ranges from tiny miniatures 1.25cm(0.5 inch) in diameter to hybrid flowers measuring more than 17.5cm(7 inches) across.


The rose plant's fleshy, sometimes edible, berrylike "fruit"(actually the floral cup) is known as a hip and usually ranges from red to orange in colour.


Roses can become infected by a number of diseases, most of them caused by fungi. Powdery mildew appears as a grayish white moldlike growth on the surface of young leaves and stems. Black spot fungus appears as conspicuous black spots on leaves and causes them to fall off. Rust is also a common disease of roses. Aphids are a common insect pest on the leaves and young stems.


MAJOR SPECIES AND HYBRIDS


The flowers of the damask rose and several other species are the source of attar of roses useed in perfumes. Many species, particularly the rugosa rose produce edible rose hips, which are a rich source of vitamin C and are sometimes used in preserves.


The best-known and most-popular class of rose is that of the hybrid tea roses, which accounts for the majority of roses grown in greenhouses and sold in florist shops. Hybrid teas come in the complete range of rose colours and have large symmentrical blossoms. Hybrid teas resulted from the crossbreeding of frequently blomming but fragile tea roses with vigorous hybrid prepetual roses. The hybrid prepetuals achieved great popularity until they were supplanted by the 20th century. Polyantha roses are a class of very hardy roses that produce dense bunches of tiny blossoms. Floribunda roses are hardy hybrids that resulted from crossing hybrid teas with polyanthas. Grandiflora roses are relatively new hybrids resulting from the crossbreeding of hybrid teas and floribunda roses. Grandifloras produce full-blossomed flowers growing on tall hardy bushes. Among the other classes of modern roses are climbing roses, whose slender stems can be trained to ascend trellises, shrub roses, which develop into larger bushes, and miniature roses, which are pygmy-sized plants bearing tiny blossoms. Altogether there are thousands of identifiable varieties of roses in those and other classes.


ROSE CARE


Rose plant faster

Plant roses in deep holes partially filled with plenty of amended soil, for drainage, and follow the planting instructions for your rose type. Some recommend forming a cone in the bottom of the planting hole and spreading the roots over the cone. This encourages the roots to grow straight down because deeper is better.


When caring for established season by removing material used for winter protection, then prune and feed the plants at the appropriate time for the local climate. This is also a good time to apply sprays to get a head start on disease and pest control. After the blooms fade later in the season, deadhead the plants to conserve their energy for more growth and blooms(for repeat-bloomers).


LIGHT


While roses like six hours of sun per day, it does matter what part of the day those six hours come from. Six hours of morning sun is preferable to six hours of afternoon sun, for two reasons. First of all, rose foliage prefers to be dry. The quicker the dampness from the night is burned off the foliage, the less likely disease is to become a factor. Second, afternoon sun is often excessively hot. Roses profit from some afternoon shade.


SOIL


Roses grow best in loamy, well drained soil with a pH ranging from 6.5 to 6.8. When improving the soil through the use of amendments, do not forget to promote drainage by incorporating peat moss. Regardless of the season of the year, apply 2 or 3 inches of mulch over the soil around rose bushes.


WATERING ROSE PLANTS


Roses need a lot of water, but how much is a lot will vary. Typically, it is best to water roses twice a week—and to water them thoroughly. It's better to water deeply twice per week than to water less deeply more often.


Avoid late-evening watering, which can foster powdery mildew, a very common disease among rose plants. By watering at the end of the day, you are not giving the sunlight a chance to dry things out before night falls. The result is that moisture hangs around all night, creating optimal conditions for powdery mildew.


For the same reason, avoid watering roses from above. Getting the leaves wet will only invite an infestation of powdery mildew. Instead, apply the water at ground level.


TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY


In cold climates, roses may need some winter protection. You can plant them near a house foundation for protection from the coldest wind while having them serve as foundation plantings. In extreme cases, you can use the "Minnesota Tip" winterizing method of bending down the plant's canes so they lie in a trench in the soil, then covering the entire plant with soil and mulch or a pile of leaves for the winter.


FERTILIZER


here a many different approaches to feeding roses, but a good rule of thumb for beginners is to feed them monthly with a 10-10-10 rose fertilizer. Start feeding them when they are actively growing in spring, coinciding with pruning time.


PRUNING


One aspect of the task that is somewhat debated is whether or not to promote outward-facing shoots when pruning rose bushes. That is, pruning tends to generate a lateral cane at the node below your cut. You can influence the shape of the shrub by making your cut either just above an outward-facing leaf bud or an inward-facing leaf bud. An argument in favor of selecting an outward-facing bud is that you promote growth away from the shrub's center, which facilitates airflow and decreases the chances of problems with mildew. But some experts assert that this practice does not need to be taken as a universal principle.


While some roses do not need pruning, most types benefit from judicious pruning in early spring, before the leaf buds open. The specific time to prune varies by climate. In warm areas where there's little or no freezing in winter, you can prune roses in January. Pruning in warm-winter climates may not be necessary, but it's always a good idea to clean up (removing dead and diseased wood) and thin plants as needed.


Some rose gardeners in warm climates strip all of the leaves from their plants in spring, causing the plants to go dormant for a short time and eliminating leaves troubled by disease or insect eggs. The plants emerge from this forced dormancy refreshed and ready for the growing season. If you try this technique, clean up all of the removed leaves and discard them (don't compost them) to prevent the spread of disease or insects.


If you live in a climate that freezes in winter, wait until April to prune, or until the leaf buds are full but not yet open. Forsythias bloom around this time, so keep an eye out for those bright yellow flowers.


SARASWATHI PLANT


Saraswathi plant

Scientific name: Centella asiatica, Family: Apiaceae, Order: Apiales, Genus: Centella. Kingdom: Plantae.


Centella asiatica commonly known as Gotu kola, Kodavan, Indian pennywort and Asiatic pennywort is a herbaceous, perennial plant in the flowering plant family Apiaceae. It is native to the wetlands in Asia. It is used as a cultinary vegetable and as a medicinal herb.


Centella grows in temperature and tropical swampy areas in many regions of the world. THe stems are slender, creeping stolons, green to reddish-green in color, connecting plants to each other. It has long-stalked, green, rounded apices which have smooth texture with palmately netted veins. The leaves are borne on pericaldial petioles, around 2cm(0.79 in). The rootstock consists of rhizomes, growing vertically down. They are creamish in color and covered with root hairs.


The flowers are white or crimson in color, born in small, rounded bunches(umbels) near the surface of the soil. Each flower is partly enclosed in two green bracts. The hermaphrodite flowers are minute in size, less than 3 mm(0.12 in), with five to six corolla lobes per flower. Each flower bears five stamens and two styles.


The fruit are densely reticulate, distinguishing it from species of Hydrocotyle which have smooth, ribbed or warty fruit. The crop matures in three months, and the whole plant, including the roots, is harvested manually. It is a highly invansive plant, rated as "high risk". Centella has numerous common names in its regions of disribution.


TRADITIONAL MEDICINE


In traditional medicine, Centella asiatica has been used to treat various disorders and minor wounds, although clinical efficacy and safety have not been scientifically confirmed. Contact dermatitis and skin irritation can result from tropical application. Drowsiness may occur after consuming it. The herb may have adverse effects on liver function when used over many months.


FERN PLANT


fern

Scientific name: Tracheophyta, Higher classification: Embryophyte.


Some ferns play a role in ecological succession, growing from the crevices of bare rock exposures and in open bogs and marshes prior to the advent of forest vegetation. The best-known fern genus over much of the world, Pteridium(bracken) is characteristically found in old fields or cleared forests, where in most places it is often succeeded by woody vegetation.


Geographically, ferns are most abundant in the tropics. Artic and Antartic regions possess few species. On the other hand, a small tropical country such as Costa Rica may have more than 900 species of ferns about twice as many as are found in all of North America north of Mexico. The finest display of fern diversity is seen in the tropical rainforests, where in only a few hectares more than 100 species may be encountered, some of which may constitute a dominant element of the vegetation. Also, many of the species grow as epiphytes upon the trunks and branches of trees.


A number of families are almost exclusively tropical (for e.g., Marattiaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Schizaeaceae, Cyatheaceae, Blechnaceae, and Davalliaceae). Most of the other families occure in both the tropics and the temperate zones. Only certain genera are primarily temperate and Arctic (e.g, Athyrium, Cystopteris, Dryopteris, and Polystichum), and even these tend to extend into the tropics, being found at high elevations on mountain ranges and volcanoes.


GROWING FERNS INDOORS


Ferns are relatively easy to grow, howerver, drafts, dry air and temperature extremes won't help. Ferns te dry air and temperature won't help. Ferns that are pampered and protected from things like dry air and temperature extremes will reward you will lush green fronds all year round, beautifying your indoor garden more than you could imagine.


TIPS FOR GROWING FERNS INDOORS


There are alot of species of tropical and subtropical ferns, but there are also a lot of ferns that are native to more temperate climates. These ferns would be well suited to cooler parts of the house but won't survive in rooms that are too well heated. Tropical ferns survive best in homes with central heating.


HUMIDITY


All ferns love moisture and should be given humid conditions. In living rooms and family rooms, stand their pots on trays of damp pebbles or clay granules. Ferns also love being misted at regular intervals with tepid, soft water unless the humidity of the whole room is kept high through the use of a humidifier.


COMPOST/SOIL


You also need to provide the right compost. Most ferns are forest or woodland plants and have tender, delicate roots adapted to the light forest soil, which is rich in leaf mould and decayed vegetable matter. The right compost must be free draining so that the roots never get waterlogged. A compost that contains peat or a fibrous peat substitute with plenty of sand is best. The compost should never be allowed to dry out, which may mean watering the plant a little every single day in a warm, dry atmosphere.


LIGHT


Although most ferns grow in moist shady places like forest floors, this doea not mean that thay need no light. Their normal situation in the wild is dappled light, and if the light level in the home is too lo, you will see poor growth and yellowing fronds. Give your fens a position near a window that gets morning or late afternon sun, and keeps away from strong sunlight, especially during the summer. Direct sunlight will make them lose their leaves or turn their fronds yellow.


You can keep your ferns in dim light as long as you give them regular breaks in bright light. They can be given artificial light, but this should be from a special gardening bulb or a fluorescent strip. Ordinary light bulbs generate too much heat.


TEMPERATURE


An individual fern's place of origin and adaptability will determine how high or low temperature the fern needs. Most ferns don't like cold. Those ferns from tropical regions truly appreciate 60-70 F(15-21C). Those from more temperature regions enjoy temperatures between 50-60 F(10-16C).


FERTILIZER


Feed your ferns in the summertime every two to four weeks with a liquid fertilizer, but don't mixit full strength because you can damage the root system. Just a few drops of fertilizer can be added to the water occasionally for misting. Don't feed your ferns in the winter because thay rest. In order to keep the air around your ferns moist, mist them often.


REPOTTING


You can report your ferns in the springtime, but only if their roots are filling the pot. Otherwise, just scrape off the top layer of compoat and replace it with fresh compost. Cut off any damage fronds to encouraf=ge new growth.


When you repot your ferns, split them up and make teo out of one. You can also grow new ferns from the powdery spores produced in little capsules. Thse capsules are viisible as rows of rusky brown patches on the underside of the fronds. These will grow into a green film into which the fern will grow.


HOW TO GET A THICKER LAWN AND KEEP IT!


Gardenland

Thicker, lusher, healthier and more beautiful. If those words describe your lawn goals, success may be closer than you think. Tranforming thin, lackluster grass into a thicker, healthier lawn isn't difficult to achieve. With three easy steps--or one simple, three-in-one lawn boost--you can get a thicker lawn and put thin grass behind you. Then add three best practices to keep a thicker lawn, and you'll enjoy a lawn that looks and feels great for years to come.


HOW TO GET A THICKER LAWN:


Improve your soil.


Overseed.


fertilize.


boost your lawn.


HOW TO KEEP A THICKER LAWN:


Irrigate.


Mow properly.


Control weeds.


HOW TO GET A THICKER LAWN:


1. IMPROVE YOUR SOIL


To get the most out of every step to a thicker lawn, take a tip from lawn pros and test your soil. Soil testing is a simple process that yeilds big returns in thick, healthy grass growth. A soil test gives you an accurate starting pont for your lawn's unique needs, as well as recommendations to fix any underlying problems. If you're new to testing, contact your local extension office. They can help with simple kits and information to get you started.


Testing reveals your soil's pH and other soil conditions that can inhibit thick, healthy growth. By following test recommendations, you can improve your soil without guesswork o=if soil pH is too low, for example example, your grass can't take up nutrients it needs. Testing lets you know if your lawn needs lime or other soil amendments to restore pH balance and nutrient availability so grass can grow thick and lush.


2. OVERSEED


Overseeding is simply sowing grass seed into existing grass to make thin lawns thick--or keep them from getting thin. New grass fills in between what's already there, creating a thicker, lusher feel and look. Routine overseeding is the pro secret to a great laen. Fall and spring are the best times for overseeding cool-season northern lawns, while thin warm-season southern lawns are best seeded in late spring.


Overseeding provides an oppurtunity to improve your lawn's quality and make it thicker. With premium grass seed such as Pennington Smart Seed. You'll add superior performance from grass varieties developed through industry- leading grass seed research. Always choose a grass that's appropriate of your lawn. For example, if you're growing grass in shade, shade-tolerate grasses help deliver the thick grass you're working toward.


3. FERTILIZE


Lawn grasses need food, just like other plants, but nutrients in soil often leach away with rainfall and irrigation. Regular fertilization throughout the growing season helps provide the nutrients your grass needs for thicker, healthier growth.


When overseeding your lawn, a starter fertilizer such as Pennington UltraGreen Starter Fertilizer 22-23-4 helps promote vigorous root growth for the fast establishment of new grasses. For established lawns. Pennington UltraGreen Lawn Fertilizer 30-0-4 provides the nitrogen your lawn needs for thick, green grass.


Half the nitrogen on these special formulations releases slowly to keep feeding your thickening lawn for up to three months. The other half is stabilized to limit leaching. This means less fertilizer is lost to the environment and your thick lawn gets more of the nutrients in the fertilizer you apply.


4. BOOST YOUR LAWN


For the fast track to a thicker lawn, you can take the all-in-one route and combine the previous three steps in one convenient, do-it-yourself lawn boost. Pennington Lawn Booster, available in Sun & Shade or Tall Fescue versions, combines seed, fertilizer and soil enhancer all in one simple product.


With Lawn Booster, you get lime-enhanced, drought-tolerant Smart Seed and a professional-grade fertilizer to improve seed germination and the overall texture and color of your lawn. The notrogen-stabilized fertilizer feeds your grass immediately and for up to eight weeks after planting. Plus soil-enhancing gypsum in this product improves your soil's health and condition without affecting soil pH, so your grass can take root and flourish.


With Lawn Booster, boosting your lawn entails three simple steps: Prepare your site, apply the all-in-one product, and water according to label instructions. Your lawn will grow quicker, thicker and greener than ordinary grass seed in just one application--guaranteed.


HOW TO KEEP A THICKER LAWN:


1. IRRIGATE


Once your thicker lawn is on track, follow good lawn watering practices to give it adequate water and keep it thick and strong. Germinating grass seed needs constant moisture until seedlings emerge and fill in between existing grass. Once lawns get established, they generally need about 1 inch of water per week, whether that comes from nature or your irrigation system. Deep, thorough irrigation encourages the deep root growth thicker lawns need.


With water-conserving Pennington Smart Seed grasses, your lawn can withstand heat, drought and stresses that cause ordinary grasees to struggle and grow thin. Smart Seed compared to ordinary grass seed needs up to 30 percent less water, year after year for the life of your lawn. These supereior, drought-tolerate grasses will stay green for up to three weeks without water. So you have less maintainance and your lawn continues looking great.


2. MOW PROPERLY


Using best practices for mowing helps your grow thick and stay that way. Rather than mowing based on your weekly calender, mow according to grass needs. Mow often enough to maintain your grass type at its recommended mowing height without removing more than one-third of the height in a single mowing. This helps avoid many of the stresses that cause thin, unattractive lawns.


Be sure to keep your mower maintained well so its blades cut cleanly instead of learning at grass. Ragged, torn gerass is more susceptible to common lawn diseases and insect pests, which keep your lawn from lush, thick growth. Switching your mowing pattern regularly also helps keep grass straight and thick.


3. CONTROL WEEDS


Weeds complete with grass for sunlight, water and nutrients. The more weeds you have, the less fertilizer and other resources your grass receives. Controlling weeds eliminates the competition so grass can stay thick and well nourished. Early fall is an excellent time to kill common lawn weeds.


For established lawns, a pre-emergeent herbicide applied before weeds appear in spring helps put your lawn on track to thicker, lusher growth. Pennington UltaGreen Crabglass Preventer Plus Lawn Fertilizer 30-0-4 feeds your lawn and controls crabgrass and broadleaf weeds before they can interfere with thick, healthy grass growth. Never use pre-emergent weed products when overseeding your lawn. Pre-emergents keep all seeds, including grass, from germinating and emerging properly.


Whether you work these steps and best practices into weekly lawn maintenance or quick weekend lawn revamps, you can achieve a thick, lush lawn and keep it that way. Combined with occasional tasks such as lawn aeration and lawn patching and repair, these steps put you on the path to enjoying a thicker, healthier lawn for years to come.


As a industry leader for more than three generations, Pennington has earned the trust of homeowners and lawn professionals alike. Pennington is committed to bringing you the finest grass seed, lawn care products and expert advice to help you grow the thickest, lushest lawn possible.


ALOE VERA


desert plant

The botanical name of Aloe vera is Aloe barbadensis miller. It belongs to Asphodelacese (Liliacese) family, and is ahrubby or arborescent, perennial, xerophytic, succulent, pea green color plant. It grows mainly in the dry regions of Africa, Asia, Europw and America.


Aloe vera plants(Aloe barbadensis var. Miller) are beautiful, easy-to-care-for succulents. Plant lovers can use aloe vera plants as indoor decorations in rooms that receive bright, indirect sunlight, and take advantage of their juice as a tropeical remedy for minor burns and cuts. Aloe vera plants are also known as to :


- Produce a pain-relieving, anti-inflammatory gel that can help heal burns, abrasions, and other minor injuries.


- Generate offsets, or "pups", for additional plants.


- Tolerate absent-minded owners who may forget to water regularly.


Plant instructions:


As a native of the semi-tropical Arabian penninsula, aloe vera plants thrive in hot, dry conditions. Therefore, keeping your plant in an environment with warm temperatures, and ensuring its soil drains well is essential to its health and longevity.


Choose a pot made of terra cotta or equally porous material with at least one drainage hole in the bottom. Use a well-draining potting mix containing lava rock, bark chunks, perlite, or all three. Do not use regular gardening soil. Fill the pot about a third of the way soil, and place the plant inside. Add the rest of the soil, leaving the bottom leaves resting just above the soil. Place the pot where it will receive indirect sunlight, and wait at least a week to water.


Watering and nutirents:


As succulents, aloe vera plant don't need much water to thrive. Water your aloe vera plant once every three weeks, but test the soil before watering to check if it is dry. Aloe vera plants are susceptible to root rot if they are overwatered, or not properly drained, so the top one to inches of soil should be dry before your plant. You only need to fertilize aloe vera plants in the spring and summer, and should do so about once a month at most. Use a balanced houseplant formula mixed at half-strenth.


Polination:


Aloe vera plants do not self-pollinate. In the U.S., aloe vera plants are usually pollinated by long-beaked birds like hummingbirds. However, as most aloe vera plants in the U.S. are kept as house[lants, they are less likely to bloom relialy. aloe vera plants can be kept outdoors in the summer months, as long as the temperature is between 55 and 80 degress Fahrenheit. This can increase the chances of flowering. Aloe vera plants produce offsets("pups") asexually. These offsets can be cut from the parent plant, and repotted to grow new aloe vera plants.


Pruning:


Aloe vera leaves are green, thick and fleshy, with serrated margins. To keep your aloe vera plant as healthy as possible, trim any edges or whole leaves that turn pinkish-brown or yellow. For small or medium-sized plants, you can use a knife, and for larger plants, you can sheers. If you are pruning leaves to remove the juice, you can use the same method, but don't cut more than one-third of the plant at a time. You should also prune offsets that begin to grow from the parents plnat in the same manner.


Light:


Aloe Vera can adapt to low light, but to grow and to flower, it needs full sun. Place your Aloe Vera near a window where you have bright light all day long. Bright and indirect light is good for Aloe Vera. You can comfortably grow and nuruture your Aloe Vera in an indoor environment.


Repotting:


Repotting always has the risk of damaging the plant. But you can do it.


Here's the step-by-step guide:


1. To unpot the plant, first, loosen the soil around the plant either by squeezing the sides of a flexible pot or shaking the pot and using your hands.


2. Tip the pot and wiggle the plant out.


3. After removing the plant from the pot, examine the roots and shoots. Dark brown oozy roots are not good. That means the roots are rotting away. lso, look for offshoots you can cut off. Cutting offshoots will help your Aloe thrive beautifully.


4. Follow the instructions from propagation to slice the pup or offshoots. Be sure to keep them in a dry place, Aloe is slightly toxic to animals, so make sure no animals come in contact with it.


5. Prepare your pot with new soil that will drain well. Put gravel at the buttoms of the pot so that the pot can quickly drain the excess water.


6. Place the plant into the soil and loosely fill in the gaps with more soil.


Sunlight:


Aloe vera plants do need regular, bright sunlight, but it should be indirect, to avoid drying out the leaves. Artificial light is sufficient as well, particularly in the winter. When you get an aloe vera plant, either place it by a window where it will receive indirect sunlight, or set up a lamp nearby. If the plant's leaves turn yellow, this can be a sign that it is getting too much direct sunlight, and should be moved.


DORI SUCCULENT


succulent plant pot

Beautiful large dori succulent. A great edition to any plant collection.


- Try to give your succulent as much sunshine as you can, they will survive in the shade, but to keep them happy and healthy vitamin D is a must.


- Water according to the season-succulents are a member of the cacti family and can survive on relatively less water than other plants. However, it is important to ensure to water them more frequently in the hotter months.


- It is extremely important to water your succulents soil directly as its easier for them to absorb it.


- Keep your succulent clean.


- Make sure to choose a container/pot with drainage as over-watering can lead to a very upset plant! Any excess water will drain out through the bottom of the pot.


- Keep an eye for any bugs and make sure to get rid of them as bugs may harm your succulent.


NOTOCACTUS WARASII


Desert plant

A cactus is a member of the plant family Cactaceae, a family comprising about 127 genera with some 1750 known species of the order Caryophyllates. The word "cactus" derives, through Latin, from the Ancient Greek Kaktos, a name originally used by Theophrastus for a spiny plant whose identify is now not certain.


Cacti occur in a wide range of shapes and sizes. Most cacti live in habitats subject to at least some drought. Many live in extremely dry environments, even being found in the Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on earth. Carti show many adaptations to conserve water. Almost all cacti are succulents, meaning they have thickened, fleshy parts adapted to store water.


Unlike many other succulents, the stem is the only part of most cacti where this vital process takes place. Most species of cacti have lost true leaves, retaining only spines, which are highly modified leaves. As well as defending against herbivores, apines help prevent water loss by reducing air flow close to the cactus and providing some shade. In the absence of leaves, enlarged stems carry out photosynthesis. Cacti are native to the Americas, ranging from Patagonia in the south to parts of western Canda in the north-- except for Rhipsalis baccifera, which also grows in Africa and Sri Lanka.


Cactus spines are produced from specialized structures called areoles, a kind of highly reduced branch. Areoles are an identifying feature of cacti. As well as spines, areoles give rise to flowers, which are usually tubular and multipetaled. Many cacti have short growing seasons and long dormancies, and able to react quickly to any rainfall, helped by an extensive but relatively shallow root system that quickly absorbs any water reaching the ground surface cactus stems are often ribbed or fluted, which allows them to expand and contract easily for quick water absorption fter rain, followed by long drought periods. Like other succulent plants, most cacto employ a special mechanism called "crassulacean acid metabolism"(CAM) as part of photosysnthesis. Transpiration, during which carbon dioxide enters the plant and water escapes, does not take place during the day at the same time as photosynthesis, but instead occurs at night.


The plant stores the carbondioxide it takes in as malic acid, retaining it until daylight returns, and only then using it in photosynthesis. Because transpiration takes place during the cooler, more humid night hours, water loss is significantly reduced.


Many smaller cacti have globe-shaped stems, combining the highest possible volume for water storage, with the lowest possible surface area for water loss from inspiration. The tallest free-standing cactus is Pachycereus pringlei, with a maximum recorded height of 19.2 m(63 ft), and the smallest is Blossfeldia liliputiana, only about 1 cm(0.4 in) in diameter at maturity. A fully grown saguaro(Carnegiea gigantea) is said to be able to absorb as much as 200 U.S. gallons(760 I; 170 imp gal) of water during a rainstorm. A few species differ significantly in appearance from most of the family. At least superificially, plants of the genera Leuenbergeria, Rhodocactus and Pereskia resemble other trees and shrubs growing around them. They have persistent leaves, and when older, bark-covered stems. Their areoes identify them as cacti, and in spite of heir apperance, they, too, have many adaptions for water conservation. Leuenbergeria is considered close to the ancestral species from from which all cacti evolved.


In tropical regions, other cacti grow as forest climbers and epiphytes(plants that grow on trees). Their stems are typically flattened, almost leaf-like in appearance, with fewer or even no spines, such as the well-known Christmas cactus or Thanks giving cactus (in the genus Schlumbergera).


Cacti have a variety of uses: many species are used as ornamental plants, others are grown for fodder or forage, and others for food (particularly their fruit). Cochineal is the product of an insect that lives on some cacti.


The purpose of the growing medium is to provide support and to store water, oxygen and dissolved minerals to feed the plant.


Roger Brown suggests a mixture of two parts commercial soilless growing medium, one part hydroponic clay and one part coarse pumice or perlite, with the addition of soil from earthworm castings.


Semi-desert cacti need careful watering. General advice is hard to give, since the frequency of watering required depends on where the cacti are being grown, the nature of the growing medium, and the original habitat of the cacti.


Brown says that more cacti are lost through the "untimely application of water than for any other reason" and that even during the dormant winter season, cacti need some water.


Although semi-desert cacti may be exposed to high light levels in the wild, they may still need some shading when subjected to the higher light levels and temperatures of a greenhouse in summer.


Cacti can be propagated by seed, cuttings or grafting. Seed sown early in the year produces seedlings that benefit from a longer growing period. Seed is sown in a moist growing medium and then kept in a covered environment, until 7–10 days after germination, to avoid drying out. A very wet growing medium can cause both seeds and seedlings to rot. A temperature range of 18–30 °C (64–86 °F) is suggested for germination; soil temperatures of around 22 °C (72 °F) promote the best root growth. Low light levels are sufficient during germination, but afterwards semi-desert cacti need higher light levels to produce strong growth, although acclimatization is needed to conditions in a greenhouse, such as higher temperatures and strong sunlight.


Reproduction by cuttings makes use of parts of a plant that can grow roots. Some cacti produce "pads" or "joints" that can be detached or cleanly cut off. Other cacti produce offsets that can be removed. Otherwise, stem cuttings can be made, ideally from relatively new growth. It is recommended that any cut surfaces be allowed to dry for a period of several days to several weeks until a callus forms over the cut surface. Rooting can then take place in an appropriate growing medium at a temperature of around 22 °C (72 °F).


Grafting is used for species difficult to grow well in cultivation or that cannot grow independently, such as some chlorophyll-free forms with white, yellow or red bodies, or some forms that show abnormal growth (e.g., cristate or monstrose forms). For the host plant (the stock), growers choose one that grows strongly in cultivation and is compatible with the plant to be propagated: the scion. The grower makes cuts on both stock and scion and joins the two, binding them together while they unite. Various kinds of graft are used—flat grafts, where both scion and stock are of similar diameters, and cleft grafts, where a smaller scion is inserted into a cleft made in the stock.


ORCHID


Mini plant orchid

The Scientific name : Orchidaceae, Kingdom: Plantae, Order: Asparagales, Family: Orchidaceae, Genus: Orchis


Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and frangrant, commonly known as the orchid family.


Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants. The Orchidaceae have about 28,000 currently accepted species, distributed in about 763 genera. The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, because verified gata on the members of such enormous families are orchid species is nearly equal to the number of bony fishes, more than twice the number of bird species, and about four times the number of mammal species.


The family encompasses about 6-11% of all seed plants. The largest genera are Bulbophyllum(2,000 species), Epidendrum (1,500 species), Dendrobium(1,400 species) and Pieurothallis(1,00 species). It also includes Vanilla(the genus of the vanilla plant), the type genus Orchis, and many commonly cultivated plants such as Phalaenopsis and Cattiya. Morever, since the introduction of tropical species into cultivation in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.


Orchids are lovely, complex and diverse flowers. They come in a stunning array of varieties, with nearly every color shape and size imaginable represented. There are many orchid types, approximately 26,000 species and about 880 categories or genera in the world. Since orchids grow on every continent one could say they are one of the most diverse species of flowers. Their structure is unique to the species, and no other flower looks quite like an orchid.


PROPAGATING ORCHIDS:


There are six main techniques currently used to propagate orchids and these are: division, back bulbs, keiki, aerial cuttings, meristem or tissue culture, and seed . All of the techniques are discussed in detail below and all but two are commonly employed in the home or greenhouse. The two which aren't commonly employed at home are propagation by seed and meristem tissue culture as these need laboratory conditions to maintain sterility.


DIVISION:


Division simply means splitting the plant in to two or more parts each with at least one new shoot and each will produce a fully grown mostly flowering size plant that is capable of flowering the following season


This is one of the simplest methods of producing more plants of the same variety or species. Many new to growing orchids are apprehensive about cutting their treasured plant in to two or more parts but there are reasons that this is not only useful in terms of increasing your stock but beneficial to the plant.


Splitting a plant will often encourage the plant to produce more shoots of a better quality and with much more vigor than would be the case if left to it's own devises. The reason for this new vigor is entirely natural and is the plants response to being placed under threat and of course the introduction of new fresh potting medium which the plant will take full advantage of.


Only divide plants where each division will have at least three back bulbs and each division should have at least one new growth. If your division has less than three back bulbs then it may not have enough strength to flower the following season and may take three or more years to come back to flowering size.


Division of plants is best undertaken in the early spring just as new growth starts, this will ensure that each division has a full growing season to establish itself so that it can flower the following season.


BACK BULBS:


Back bulb propagation is a method of producing a new plant from old previously flowered or unflowered back pseudobulbs which are usually leafless, plants grown this way may take 2 to 3 years or more to reach flowering size.


Another simple method of propagation but this one may take many years to obtain a flowering size plant. Essentially the process involves the removal of older back bulbs - preferably at re potting time - and placing them under 'ideal' growing conditions to induce rooting. If you can induce a back bulb to throw out roots then you are half way to obtaining a new plant. It is important to remember though when removing back bulbs that in order to keep the parent plant at flowering size that it, or any divisions should still have at least two good back bulbs and a growth.


Because the bulb is grown from the same plant what you will be left with is the same plant in two different pots, not strictly a clone but the idea is the same as both or all of the plants will be identical (they are actually all the same plant) and so this is an ideal way for the amateur to obtain many plants from their favourite Cymbidium for example.


AERIAL CUTTINGS:


Aerial cuttings are very common on many of the cane Dendrobiums such as Nobile. If placed under stressful growing conditions then some Dendrobiums will instead of developing flower buds will produce small plants in their place - fine for increasing your stock but not if you want flowers!


Aerial cuttings are very easy to take as the plant is almost fully grown before being removed from the parent plant. Since this type of propagation does not involve fertilization the new plant will be the same as it's parent.


MERISTEM OR TISSUE CULTURE


Meristem culture is done under laboratory conditions as extreme cleanliness and sterility are required otherwise all attempts will fail. This is a highly skilful and scientific method of propagation where the very growing centre of a new growth bud is taken and grown on by agitating constantly in a special nutrient rich liquid until the cell mass is large enough to be split in to small sections these are then either grown on in to plants or the process is repeated to produce even more tissue for growing on. This method is often used to mass produce a specific hybrid for commercial purposes.


Meristem tissue culture is not really suitable for attempting at home as the sterility usually can't be achieved, you can of course buy flasks of the finished tissue cultures for growing on but this process will take between 3 and 5 years to get a flowering size plant.


SEED:


Again this is a technique better suited to laboratory conditions as absolute sterility is needed for success. Orchid seed is almost like dust and unlike ordinary seed which has a starchy food within it to sustain the growing seedling, orchid seed has none and so special techniques are required to sustain it during the formative early stages of its development.


DE FLASKING ORCHID SEEDLINGS:


If you have your own home grown seedlings or you've just bought a flask here are some guidelines for getting the small orchids out of the glass jar in a process known as 'de flasking'Here's a session De Flasking a jar of Cattleya jenmanii, a South American species


Re Potting Orchids:


Most orchids will require re potting every 12 - 19 months. Here we will show you the correct procedure and time of year you should do it.


This Phalaenopsis orchid is in desperate need of re potting, the plant is on one side (as they tend to do) and the compost is beginning to break down


Re Potting Phalaenopsis Orchids:


Phalaenopsis orchids will require re potting every 12 - 18 months as they continually strive to get out of their pots and assume the more natural 45 degree angle.


They are quite resilient orchids and do not mind careful root trimming so long as they get the required temperature and humidity afterwards.


This plant is growing out of its pot in classic fashion, note the excess of aerial roots and the leaves and flowers growing out at a strange angle. Clearly the plant prefers this but when keeping it on a windowsill it quickly becomes obvious that it is not a tidy plant to look at - the remedy is in hand!


The first thing you need to do is remove the old flowering spikes and dead or dying leaves, in this case the plant also has a current spike which I am prepared to loose as it's almost finished anyway.


Any dead leaves are easily removed as they will have broken away from the plant on their own, dying leaves need tearing down the central vein in the leaf. To do this you need to carefully make a small tear right at the tip of the leaf and then pull each half in opposite directions right down to the stem.


The old flowering spikes need removing as close to the stem as possible to prevent them from starting a rotting process.


The 'compost' used in this procedure is large grade orchid bark or orchid compost, the difference between bark and compost is that orchid compost has added peat and will need watering less often whereas bark is just the bark on its own.


Now that the plant is more manageable it is time to remove it from the pot.


Tip the plant on its site and squeeze the sides of the pot to loosen the old compost then carefully but firmly pull out the plant, use the very base of the plant to hold on to during this process.


Once you have the plant out of the pot it is a good time to take a look and see if there are any pest on it, in this case all is clear. If your plant has any pests then you should remove them and treat the plant with the appropriate substance.


Phalaenopsis orchids will often have dead roots under the surface, this is perfectly normal and you can tell the difference easily. Live roots are white/grey and dead ones are brown. The outer covering of live roots is also firmly attached to the core but a dead roots outer covering simply slips off whilst holding it leaving a kind of thin wire behind.


Any overly long aerial roots should be trimmed back as they will not function in the potting medium and may rot and kill the plant.


This is because they have formed an outer skin which is designed to take water from the atmosphere rather than in compost.


You should add a small quantity of large chunks of bark to the base of the pot to act as a kind of pot crock, you could also use pieces of polystyrene.


Once you have established that the roots are alive and that there are no pests on the plant is it time to position it in the pot.


In this case we have washed the pot and are re using it as it is the right size for the plant. Don't be tempted to over pot the plant as this will cause unused compost to sour and you could loose the plant, if in doubt use a smaller pot rather than a larger one.


Now is the time to add your preferred potting medium, make sure to compact is very well to hold the plant in position once you let go and that all the roots are in the compost.


It is very difficult to over compact orchid bark or orchid compost so please don't be afraid to press firmly as a loose plant will have difficulty getting established.


TRICKS OF NIGHT SKY PHOTOGRAPHY


night sky1

1.Get out of the city


Ambient light from cities can have an impact on what you are actually abke to view in the night sky. If you can, try to get away from the background of city lights and out into the countryside landscape to really see the magnificient metros, stars and moon.


2.Use a tripod


While this may seem obvios, it is an essential part of low light photography. A tripod will help you stabilize the csmera and reduce camera shake so you don't get blurry images.


night sky2

3.Get the right app


As you can't control the shutter speed on most smartphones, there have been several apps developed to simulate this effect for both iOS and Android. On iOS you can use Slow Shutter Cam or Average Camera Pro. For Android, Camera F-5 Lite or Night Camera are great options. These apps take multiple photos in a short time span to recreate the effect of a long exposure.


night sky3

4.Avoid flash and HDR


Justbecause it's dark outside, doesn't mean you should use the flash. A flash will drown out the faint light of the stars so you only end up with a black image. It's best not to use flash at all. As for HDR, this setting tends to slow down the speed of your camera, so keeping it off will improve your camera's performance.


night sky4

5.Steer clear of digital zoom


While it's very temping to zoom in on those seemingly small stars, once you view the picture on a screen larger than your phone's. you likely won't be happy with the result. The more you zoom in, the more the photo quality diminishes.


THE SEA


sea with trees

The sea, connected as the world ocean or simply the ocean, is the body of salty water that covers approximately 71 percent of the Earth's surface.


The word sea is also used to denote second-order sections of the sea, such as the Mediterranean Sea, as well as certain large, entirely landlocked, saltwater lakes, such as the Caspian Sea


The sea moderates Earth's climate and has important roles in the water cycle, carbon cycle, and nitrogen cycle. Humans harnessing and studying the sea have been recorded since ancient times, and evidenced well into prehistory, while its modern scientific study is called oceanography. The most abundant solid dissolved in seawater is sodium chloride. The water also contains salts of magnesium, calcium, potassium, and mercury, amongst many other elements, some in minute concentrations. Salinity varies widely, being lower near the surface and the mouths of large rivers and higher in the depths of the ocean; however, the relative proportions of dissolved salts vary little across the oceans. Winds blowing over the surface of the sea produce waves, which break when they enter the shallow water. Winds also create surface currents through friction, setting up slow but stable circulations of water throughout the oceans. The directions of the circulation are governed by factors, including the shapes of the continents and Earth's rotation (the Coriolis effect). Deep-sea currents, known as the global conveyor belt, carry cold water from near the poles to every ocean. Tides, the generally twice-daily rise and fall of sea levels, are caused by Earth's rotation and the gravitational effects of the orbiting Moon and, to a lesser extent, of the Sun. Tides may have a very high range in bays or estuaries. Submarine earthquakes arising from tectonic plate movements under the oceans can lead to destructive tsunamis, as can volcanoes, huge landslides, or the impact of large meteorites.


A wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, protists, algae, plants, fungi, and animals, live in the sea, which offers a wide range of marine habitats and ecosystems, ranging vertically from the sunlit surface and shoreline to the great depths and pressures of the cold, dark abyssal zone, and in latitude from the cold waters under polar ice caps to the colourful diversity of coral reefs in tropical regions. Many of the major groups of organisms evolved in the sea and life may have started there.


The sea provides substantial supplies of food for humans, mainly fish, but also shellfish, mammals and seaweed, whether caught by fishermen or farmed underwater. Other human uses of the sea include trade, travel, mineral extraction, power generation, warfare, and leisure activities such as swimming, sailing, and scuba diving. Many of these activities create marine pollution. The sea has therefore been for humans an integral element throughout history and culture.


The sea is the interconnected system of all the Earth's oceanic waters, including the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Southern and Arctic Oceans.[1] However, the word "sea" can also be used for many specific, much smaller bodies of seawater, such as the North Sea or the Red Sea. There is no sharp distinction between seas and oceans, though generally seas are smaller, and are often partly (as marginal seas or particularly as mediterranean seas) or wholly (as inland seas) bordered by land. However, the Sargasso Sea has no coastline and lies within a circular current, the North Atlantic Gyre.:90 Seas are generally larger than lakes and contain salt water, but the Sea of Galilee is a freshwater lake. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea states that all of the ocean is "sea"


A characteristic of seawater is that it is salty. Salinity is usually measured in parts per thousand (‰ or per mil), and the open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) solids per litre, a salinity of 35 ‰. The Mediterranean Sea is slightly higher at 38 ‰, while the salinity of the northern Red Sea can reach 41‰. In contrast, some landlocked hypersaline lakes have a much higher salinity, for example the Dead Sea has 300 grams (11 oz) dissolved solids per litre (300 ‰).


While the constituents of table salt sodium and chloride make up about 85 percent of the solids in solution, there are also other metal ions such as magnesium and calcium, and negative ions including sulphate, carbonate, and bromide. Despite variations in the levels of salinity in different seas, the relative composition of the dissolved salts is stable throughout the world's oceans. Seawater is too saline for humans to drink safely, as the kidneys cannot excrete urine as salty as seawater.


Although the amount of salt in the ocean remains relatively constant within the scale of millions of years, various factors affect the salinity of a body of water.[27] Evaporation and by-product of ice formation (known as "brine rejection") increase salinity, whereas precipitation, sea ice melt, and runoff from land reduce it. The Baltic Sea, for example, has many rivers flowing into it, and thus the sea could be considered as brackish. Meanwhile, the Red Sea is very salty due to its high evaporation rate.


sea with trees

Seawater with a typical salinity of 35 ‰ has a freezing point of about −1.8 °C (28.8 °F).[31] When its temperature becomes low enough, ice crystals form on the surface. These break into small pieces and coalesce into flat discs that form a thick suspension known as frazil. In calm conditions this freezes into a thin flat sheet known as nilas, which thickens as new ice forms on its underside. In more turbulent seas, frazil crystals join together into flat discs known as pancakes. These slide under each other and coalesce to form floes. In the process of freezing, salt water and air are trapped between the ice crystals. Nilas may have a salinity of 12–15 ‰, but by the time the sea ice is one year old, this falls to 4–6 ‰ .


Over most of geologic time, the sea level has been higher than it is today.:74 The main factor affecting sea level over time is the result of changes in the oceanic crust, with a downward trend expected to continue in the very long term. At the last glacial maximum, some 20,000 years ago, the sea level was about 125 metres (410 ft) lower than in present times (2012).


For at least the last 100 years, sea level has been rising at an average rate of about 1.8 millimetres (0.071 in) per year.[39] Most of this rise can be attributed to an increase in the temperature of the sea due to climate change, and the resulting slight thermal expansion of the upper 500 metres (1,600 ft) of water. Additional contributions, as much as one quarter of the total, come from water sources on land, such as melting snow and glaciers and extraction of groundwater for irrigation and other agricultural and human needs.


Wind blowing over the surface of a body of water forms waves that are perpendicular to the direction of the wind. The friction between air and water caused by a gentle breeze on a pond causes ripples to form. A strong blow over the ocean causes larger waves as the moving air pushes against the raised ridges of water. The waves reach their maximum height when the rate at which they are travelling nearly matches the speed of the wind. In open water, when the wind blows continuously as happens in the Southern Hemisphere in the Roaring Forties, long, organised masses of water called swell roll across the ocean.:83–84 If the wind dies down, the wave formation is reduced, but already-formed waves continue to travel in their original direction until they meet land. The size of the waves depends on the fetch, the distance that the wind has blown over the water and the strength and duration of that wind. When waves meet others coming from different directions, interference between the two can produce broken, irregular seas. Constructive interference can cause individual (unexpected) rogue waves much higher than normal. Most waves are less than 3 m (10 ft) high[43] and it is not unusual for strong storms to double or triple that height;[44] offshore construction such as wind farms and oil platforms use metocean statistics from measurements in computing the wave forces (due to for instance the hundred-year wave) they are designed against. Rogue waves, however, have been documented at heights above 25 meters (82 ft).


The top of a wave is known as the crest, the lowest point between waves is the trough and the distance between the crests is the wavelength. The wave is pushed across the surface of the sea by the wind, but this represents a transfer of energy and not a horizontal movement of water. As waves approach land and move into shallow water, they change their behavior. If approaching at an angle, waves may bend (refraction) or wrap rocks and headlands (diffraction). When the wave reaches a point where its deepest oscillations of the water contact the seabed, they begin to slow down. This pulls the crests closer together and increases the waves' height, which is called wave shoaling. When the ratio of the wave's height to the water depth increases above a certain limit, it "breaks", toppling over in a mass of foaming water. This rushes in a sheet up the beach before retreating into the sea under the influence of gravity.


The zone where land meets sea is known as the coast and the part between the lowest spring tides and the upper limit reached by splashing waves is the shore. A beach is the accumulation of sand or shingle on the shore. A headland is a point of land jutting out into the sea and a larger promontory is known as a cape. The indentation of a coastline, especially between two headlands, is a bay, a small bay with a narrow inlet is a cove and a large bay may be referred to as a gulf. Coastlines are influenced by a number of factors including the strength of the waves arriving on the shore, the gradient of the land margin, the composition and hardness of the coastal rock, the inclination of the off-shore slope and the changes of the level of the land due to local uplift or submergence. Normally, waves roll towards the shore at the rate of six to eight per minute and these are known as constructive waves as they tend to move material up the beach and have little erosive effect. Storm waves arrive on shore in rapid succession and are known as destructive waves as the swash moves beach material seawards. Under their influence, the sand and shingle on the beach is ground together and abraded. Around high tide, the power of a storm wave impacting on the foot of a cliff has a shattering effect as air in cracks and crevices is compressed and then expands rapidly with release of pressure. At the same time, sand and pebbles have an erosive effect as they are thrown against the rocks. This tends to undercut the cliff, and normal weathering processes such as the action of frost follows, causing further destruction. Gradually, a wave-cut platform develops at the foot of the cliff and this has a protective effect, reducing further wave-erosion.


Material worn from the margins of the land eventually ends up in the sea. Here it is subject to attrition as currents flowing parallel to the coast scour out channels and transport sand and pebbles away from their place of origin. Sediment carried to the sea by rivers settles on the seabed causing deltas to form in estuaries. All these materials move back and forth under the influence of waves, tides and currents. Dredging removes material and deepens channels but may have unexpected effects elsewhere on the coastline. Governments make efforts to prevent flooding of the land by the building of breakwaters, seawalls, dykes and levees and other sea defences. For instance, the Thames Barrier is designed to protect London from a storm surge, while the failure of the dykes and levees around New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina created a humanitarian crisis in the United States.


sea with trees

The oceans are home to a diverse collection of life forms that use it as a habitat. Since sunlight illuminates only the upper layers, the major part of the ocean exists in permanent darkness. As the different depth and temperature zones each provide habitat for a unique set of species, the marine environment as a whole encompasses an immense diversity of life. Marine habitats range from surface water to the deepest oceanic trenches, including coral reefs, kelp forests, seagrass meadows, tidepools, muddy, sandy and rocky seabeds, and the open pelagic zone. The organisms living in the sea range from whales 30 metres (100 ft) long to microscopic phytoplankton and zooplankton, fungi, and bacteria. Marine life plays an important part in the carbon cycle as photosynthetic organisms convert dissolved carbon dioxide into organic carbon and it is economically important to humans for providing fish for use as food.


Life may have originated in the sea and all the major groups of animals are represented there. Scientists differ as to precisely where in the sea life arose: the Miller-Urey experiments suggested a dilute chemical "soup" in open water, but more recent suggestions include volcanic hot springs, fine-grained clay sediments, or deep-sea "black smoker" vents, all of which would have provided protection from damaging ultraviolet radiation which was not blocked by the early Earth's atmosphere.


Marine habitats can be divided horizontally into coastal and open ocean habitats. Coastal habitats extend from the shoreline to the edge of the continental shelf. Most marine life is found in coastal habitats, even though the shelf area occupies only 7 percent of the total ocean area. Open ocean habitats are found in the deep ocean beyond the edge of the continental shelf. Alternatively, marine habitats can be divided vertically into pelagic (open water), demersal (just above the seabed) and benthic (sea bottom) habitats. A third division is by latitude: from polar seas with ice shelves, sea ice and icebergs, to temperate and tropical waters.


Coral reefs, the so-called "rainforests of the sea", occupy less than 0.1 percent of the world's ocean surface, yet their ecosystems include 25 percent of all marine species.[79] The best-known are tropical coral reefs such as Australia's Great Barrier Reef, but cold water reefs harbour a wide array of species including corals (only six of which contribute to reef formation).


FALL LEAF


Compound leaf

Chlorophyll Breaks Down


But in the fall, because of changes in the length of daylight and changes in temperature, the leaves stop their food-making process. The chlorophyll breaks down, the green color disappears, and the yellow to orange colors become visible and give the leaves part of their fall splendor.


At the same time other chemical changes may occur, which form additional colors through the development of red anthocyanin pigments. Some mixtures give rise to the reddish and purplish fall colors of trees such as dogwoods and sumacs, while others give the sugar maple its brilliant orange.


The autumn foliage of some trees show only yellow colors. Others, like many oaks, display mostly browns. All these colors are due to the mixing of varying amounts of the chlorophyll residue and other pigments in the leaf during the fall season.


Other Changes Take Place


As the fall colors appear, other changes are taking place. At the point where the stem of the leaf is attached to the tree, a special layer of cells develops and gradually severs the tissues that support the leaf. At the same time, the tree seals the cut, so that when the leaf is finally blown off by the wind or falls from its own weight, it leaves behind a leaf scar.


Most of the broad-leaved trees in the North shed their leaves in the fall. However, the dead brown leaves of the oaks and a few other species may stay on the tree until growth starts again in the spring. In the South, where the winters are mild, some of the broad-leaved trees are evergreen; that is, the leaves stay on the trees during winter and keep their green color.


Only Some Trees Lose Leaves


Most of the conifers - pines, spruces, firs, hemlocks, cedars, etc. - are evergreen in both the North and South. The needle- or scale-like leaves remain green or greenish the year round, and individual leaves may stay on for two to four or more years.


Weather Affects Color Intensity


Temperature, light, and water supply have an influence on the degree and the duration of fall color. Low temperatures above freezing will favor anthocyanin formation producing bright reds in maples. However, early frost will weaken the brilliant red color. Rainy and/or overcast days tend to increase the intensity of fall colors. The best time to enjoy the autumn color would be on a clear, dry, and cool (not freezing) day.


Enjoy the color, it only occurs for a brief period each fall.


Species that generally change to a golden yellow in the fall include American elm, black cherry, cucumber magnolia, hop hornbeam, quaking aspen, shagbark hickory, striped maple, sugar maple, tulip poplar and witch hazel.


Beech trees and shagbark hickory trees have several things in common: lovely yellow-golden leaves in fall, beautiful bark, and edible nuts. However, beech trees have two notable advantages when it comes to fall foliage: They change color later in the season, and they hold their leaves for a longer period of time.


Which Trees Turn Orange during Autumn? Maple trees are famous for producing bright orange leaves, including the sugar maple, Japanese maple, and red maple. Many oaks are not particularly impressive during the fall and have leaves that turn brown quickly.


Striped maples are a maple tree native to the northeast US and southeast Canada. Their leaves turn a delightful yellow color in the fall. They're relatively small, maxing out at about 30 feet tall.


But in the fall, because of changes in the length of daylight and changes in temperature, the leaves stop their food-making process. The chlorophyll breaks down, the green color disappears, and the yellow to orange colors become visible and give the leaves part of their fall splendor.


In the fall, trees break down the green pigments and nutrients stored in their leaves. The nutrients are shuttled into the tree's roots for reuse in the spring. It's then that the trees take on their autumn hues. ... Some tree leaves turn mostly brown, indicating that all pigments are gone.


In autumn when it starts to get cold, some plants stop making chlorophyll. Instead, those plants break down chlorophyll into smaller molecules. As chlorophyll goes away, other pigments start to show their colors. This is why leaves turn yellow or red in fall.


SUGAR MAPLE


Red Leaf

Now you’re probably thinking about maple syrup and pancakes (yum). So, you should know that the Sugar Maple gets its name by having the sweetest sap out of all of the maple trees. It’s definitely the top choice if you’re interested in harvesting your own sap.


Sugar Maples also grow into large shade trees by reaching heights of 55 to 75 feet, with a spread of 30 to 50 feet.


This Maple variety stands up to the cold, by withstanding the freezing temperatures in growing zones 3 through 8. This is the tree for you if you fear that winter might be a little too rough.


And one of its most prominent features is amazing fall color. As the seasons change, the leaves turn vibrant shades of yellow, burnt orange and red.


Fall is right around the corner, and we can almost smell the pumpkin spice in the air. While people are prepping for sweater weather and football season to start, they’re also getting pretty excited for vibrant fall colors. Most of the brightest fall colors come from Maples, which display bright shades of yellow, orange and red.


With a huge number of different types of Maple Trees native to North America, choosing the right fit for your landscape can be tough. We’ve put together a list of the top Maples with the best fall color.


Most important of all, the Sugar Maple has amazing color. In the spring and summer, the leaves are a shade of rich green that develop shades of gold, orange and red during fall. This tree has three different traffic-stopping colors every spring, causing it to stand out as the prettiest tree on the block.


2. The Autumn Blaze Maple


Pull out your sunglasses before looking at this hot maple. It is known for being one of the fastest-growing Maples, with a growth rate of 3 to 5 feet per year. This is the pick for those who want to have a mature tree in their landscape fast!


By reaching heights of 40 to 50 feet and a width of 30 to 40 feet, this Maple makes for an excellent shade tree. Place a picnic table or two under the canopy to keep your guests cool during family reunions or barbecues. Once all the leaves have fallen in the winter, the sunlight will shine through the branches to warm your home.


The Autumn Blaze Maple provides some of the brightest fall color around. It stands out like a beacon with bright red leaves, attracting everyone’s eyes to your landscape.


3. The Norway Maple


One of the toughest Maples, the Norway has the ability to grow in a variety of poor conditions. Poor soil, rocky soils, soil that’s heavy in clay, sandy soil, etc.


The Norway Maple will also stand up to smog and air pollutants in urban areas. If planted in your yard, this tree will filter out pollutants in the air. It’s the perfect team player in communities. Recommended for growing zones 4 through 8, it can also stand up cold winter temperatures and inclement winter weather.


Heights of 40 to 50 feet and widths of 15 to 25 feet mean the Norway also shades the neighborhood. Read a book or lay in a hammock under your beautiful shade tree.


4. The American Red Maple


The recommended growing zones for this tree are zones 4 to 9, meaning this tree is both cold hardy and drought tolerant. It can be planted down in Southern Florida, Texas, California and other warm areas. The American Red will also flourish in the extremely cold areas around Northern Maine, Wisconsin and Washington.


Another pick from the toughest Maples, it can also survive a variety of different conditions. Swampy wet areas and dry areas will be just fine for this vigorous grower. The American Red Maple is also a perfect choice for urban areas because smog and pollutants won’t harm it.


With a growing rate of 2 to 3 feet per year, it’s considered a fast growing variety. It will quickly reach heights of 40 to 60 feet tall while growing to 25 to 45 feet in width.


Best of all, it provides multiple seasons of exciting colors. In the spring, the American Red Maple has clusters of red flowers that pop against its vivid green leaves. Fall brings rich shades of fiery red.


AUTUMN LEAF COLOR


Colour leaf

Autumn leaf color is a phenomenon that affects the normal green leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs by which they take on, during a few weeks in the autumn season, various shades of yellow, orange, red, purple, and brown. The phenomenon is commonly called autumn colours or autumn foliage in British English and fall colors, fall foliage, or simply foliage in American English.


In some areas of Canada and the United States, "leaf peeping" tourism is a major contribution to economic activity. This tourist activity occurs between the beginning of color changes and the onset of leaf fall, usually around September and October in the Northern Hemisphere and April to May in the Southern Hemisphere.


Although some autumn coloration occurs wherever deciduous trees are found, the most brightly colored autumn foliage is found in the northern hemisphere, including most of southern mainland Canada, some areas of the northern United States, Northern and Western Europe north of the Alps, the Caucasus region of Russia near the Black Sea, and Eastern Asia (including much of northern and eastern China, and as well as Korea and Japan).


In the southern hemisphere, colorful autumn foliage can be observed in southern and central Argentina, the south and southeast regions of Brazil, and southeastern Australia (including Tasmania).


Compared to Western Europe (excluding Southern Europe), North America provides many more arbor species (more than 800 species and about 70 oaks, compared to 51 and three, respectively, in Western Europe) which adds many more different colors to the spectacle. The main reason is the different effect of the Ice ages – while in North America, species were protected in more southern regions along north–south ranging mountains, this was not the case in much of Europe.


Global warming and rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere may delay the usual autumn spectacle of changing colors and falling leaves in northern hardwood forests in the future, and increase forest productivity. Experiments with poplar trees showed that they stayed greener longer with higher CO2 levels, independent of temperature changes. However, the experiments over two years were too brief to indicate how mature forests may be affected over time. Also, other factors, such as increasing ozone levels close to the ground (tropospheric ozone pollution), can negate the beneficial effects of elevated carbon dioxide.


As autumn approaches, with daylight hours shortening and temperatures cooling, the veins that carry fluids into and out of the leaf are gradually closed off as a layer of special cork cells forms at the base of each leaf. As this cork layer develops, water and mineral intake into the leaf is reduced, slowly at first, and then more rapidly. During this time, the amount of chlorophyll in the leaf begins to decrease. Often, the veins are still green after the tissues between them have almost completely changed color.


Deciduous plants were traditionally believed to shed their leaves in autumn primarily because the high costs involved in their maintenance would outweigh the benefits from photosynthesis during the winter period of low light availability and cold temperatures. In many cases, this turned out to be oversimplistic – other factors involved include insect predation, water loss, and damage from high winds or snowfall.


COLORED LEAVES


Yellow And Red Leaves

Anthocyanins, responsible for red-purple coloration, are actively produced in autumn, but not involved in leaf-drop. A number of hypotheses on the role of pigment production in leaf-drop have been proposed, and generally fall into two categories: interaction with animals, and protection from nonbiological factors.


The brilliant red autumn color of some species of maple is created by processes separate from those in chlorophyll breakdown. When the tree is struggling to cope with the energy demands of a changing and challenging season, maple trees are involved in an additional metabolic expenditure to create anthocyanins. These anthocyanins, which create the visual red hues, have been found to aid in interspecific competition by stunting the growth of nearby saplings (allelopathy).


According to the photoprotection theory, anthocyanins protects the leaf against the harmful effects of light at low temperatures. The leaves are about to fall, so protection is not of extreme importance for the tree. Photo-oxidation and photoinhibition, however, especially at low temperatures, make the process of reabsorbing nutrients less efficient. By shielding the leaf with anthocyanins, according to the photoprotection theory, the tree manages to reabsorb nutrients (especially nitrogen) more efficiently.


The reds, the purples, and their blended combinations that decorate autumn foliage come from another group of pigments in the cells called anthocyanins. Unlike the carotenoids, these pigments are not present in the leaf throughout the growing season, but are actively produced towards the end of summer. They develop in late summer in the sap of the cells of the leaf, and this development is the result of complex interactions of many influences – both inside and outside the plant. Their formation depends on the breakdown of sugars in the presence of bright light as the level of phosphate in the leaf is reduced.


During the summer growing season, phosphate is at a high level. It has a vital role in the breakdown of the sugars manufactured by chlorophyll, but in the fall, phosphate, along with the other chemicals and nutrients, moves out of the leaf into the stem of the plant. When this happens, the sugar-breakdown process changes, leading to the production of anthocyanin pigments. The brighter the light during this period, the greater the production of anthocyanins and the more brilliant the resulting color display. When the days of autumn are bright and cool, and the nights are chilly but not freezing, the brightest colorations usually develop.


Anthocyanins temporarily color the edges of some of the very young leaves as they unfold from the buds in early spring. They also give the familiar color to such common fruits as cranberries, red apples, blueberries, cherries, strawberries, and plums.


Carotenoids are present in the leaves throughout the year, but their orange-yellow colors are usually masked by green chlorophyll. As autumn approaches, certain influences both inside and outside the plant cause the chlorophylls to be replaced at a slower rate than they are being used up. During this period, with the total supply of chlorophylls gradually dwindling, the "masking" effect slowly fades away. Then other pigments present (along with the chlorophylls) in the leaf's cells begin to show through. These are carotenoids and they provide colorations of yellow, brown, orange, and the many hues in between.


The carotenoids occur, along with the chlorophyll pigments, in tiny structures called plastids, within the cells of leaves. Sometimes, they are in such abundance in the leaf that they give a plant a yellow-green color, even during the summer. Usually, however, they become prominent for the first time in autumn, when the leaves begin to lose their chlorophyll.


LAKE VIEW IN AUTUMN


Site seeing

Carotenoids are common in many living things, giving characteristic color to carrots, corn, canaries, and daffodils, as well as egg yolks, rutabagas, buttercups, and bananas.


Their brilliant yellows and oranges tint the leaves of such hardwood species as hickories, ash, maple, yellow poplar, aspen, birch, black cherry, sycamore, cottonwood, sassafras, and alder. Carotenoids are the dominant pigment in coloration of about 15-30% of tree species.


Bench Around the Lake is a public artwork by Danish artist Jeppe Hein, located in the 100 Acres: The Virginia B. Fairbanks Art and Nature Park, in Indianapolis, Indiana, United States. The artwork consists of fifteen individually designed yellow interactive bench installations strategically placed throughout the park location. Some of the benches consist of multiple components or sections within one site.


The artwork consists of fifteen bright yellow benches of different shapes, sizes and designs made of powder coated galvanized steel. The benches are placed at specific sites, as decided by the artist, throughout the park which borders the bank of the White River. Hein describes the work as "one long bench that emerges from the ground and then twists, turns, and submerges again in several locations,"


Bench Around the Lake is a re-interpretation of Hein's Modified Social Benches which manipulate the traditional concept of a park bench. With this artwork series Hein hopes to challenge the idea of a bench being a passive object used for sitting, as well as to promote visitors to interact with the artwork in different ways and to explore more secluded or less-used areas of the park. This series of benches also coincided with Hein's May 2010 temporary installation of Distance inside the museum.


Working with IMA staff and Indianapolis-based landscape architect Eric Fulford, Hein selected the locations for the benches which are placed throughout the 35-acre park. The benches appear along the beaches on the lake and river, a gully, by fallen trees, the park's Ruth Lilly Visitors Pavilion and other spots throughout the park's many pathways. The artwork was fabricated in Germany and shipped to Indianapolis and installed at the IMA by their Design and Installation crew. The artwork was fully installed by the park's opening in May 2010.


Bench Lake is a freshwater lake located on the north skirt of Unicorn Peak along the Tatoosh Range in Lewis County, Washington. Along with neighboring Snow Lake, they are considered some of the most visited lakes in the Alpine Lakes Wilderness.[2] The lake is also stocked with rainbow trout for fishing. The lake sits in a broad meadow called The Bench from which it got its name.


Bench Around the Lake is a series of 15 vivid yellow benches that interact with specific sites within 100 Acres and along the bordering bank of the White River. Hein envisions the installation as one long bench that emerges from the ground, twists, turns and submerges again, forming a circuit around the Park’s 35-acre lake. The work challenges the assumption that a bench is made for passive sitting, encouraging visitors to explore less frequented areas of the Park and providing opportunities to sit, look, listen, interact and play.


MORNING VIEW IN AUTUMN


Morning Coffee

Autumn Mornings may be the most seasonal of our seasonal blends yet. After all, it’s the time of year people seem to enjoy the most... Back to school, football season, sweater weather, cider mills and leaf jumping. Autumn mornings is our reflection on both the changing of seasons and the bounty of the harvest created by the heat of the summer, swiftly fading into cool, autumn mornings.


The release of this coffee also coincides with the arrival of our Ethiopian coffees from the most recent harvest. These coffees arrive with vibrant flavors and aromas, very much alive and at the peak of freshness like a vine-ripened heirloom tomato. The beans grown in Ethiopia are typically a field blend of heirloom varieties. Each bean adds to the uniqueness of the overall coffee flavor (the coffee bean is the reproductive seed of a fruit).


Natural process Ethiopia coffees tend to be intensely fruity, like homemade jam simmering down on the stovetop to concentrate. Washed Ethiopia coffees lean more towards freshly cut fruit mixed together in a salad with fresh garden herbs.


We blend natural and washed coffees for Autumn Mornings to create a harmonious balance just like the warm days and cool, autumn mornings of the season.


As one season fades into the next, your palate changes. Whether it’s winter, spring, summer, or fall, specific flavors evoke the nostalgia and feelings surrounding each season. As Thanksgiving draws near, your taste buds crave all things pumpkin. Meanwhile, summer calls for something zesty and refreshing, like tart berries. It’s always helpful to know which seasonal coffee flavors are trending.


Coffee drinkers are always excited for limited-time seasonal flavors greeting them like long-lost friends. Some flavors match specific seasons. Here are some of the most popular coffee flavor trends for each season.


Autumn, season of the year between summer and winter during which temperatures gradually decrease. It is often called fall in the United States because leaves fall from the trees at that time. Animals gather food in autumn in preparation for the coming winter, and those with fur often grow thicker coats.


AUTUMN SIGHTS


Autumn season

Changing leaves – The leaves on deciduous trees (not evergreens) change colour in autumn, before they drop to the ground.


Conkers – These are inedible nuts from the horse chestnut tree.


Cobwebs – Spider-webs are with us all year round but autumn is the best time to see them.


Autumn is a beautiful time of year. Yes, it's always sad that summer is over, but that doesn't mean Fall isn't worthy of the same affection. The leaves change from green to an incredible display of vibrant colors, just as your cheeks get a little ruddy from the colder weather.


As the autumn season sets in so do some beautiful changes. It's a time when colors change, moods change, and weather changes. The trees change color and look really pretty – yes with the changes in temperature you will notice the leaves starting to turn a beautiful orange and yellow welcoming the changing season.


Autumn represents the preservation of life and its basic necessities. During this time, animals prepare for the winter by storing food and creating cozy hibernation spaces. Farmers work on their fall harvest by collecting a reserve of crops


One of the most significant visual changes that we experience in autumn is the changing colour of leaves on the trees, turning from green to a beautiful selection of browns, reds and oranges.


Autumn is the best season because the weather is changing, leaves are turning colors, and school starts. The list of fall things worth loving is long. Many seasonal, delicious food and drink items - like pumpkin spice lattes, the best fall beers, and pumpkin pie are reintroduced onto restaurant menus.


The weather also begins to get colder and many plants stop making food. Autumn is the time when deciduous trees shed their leaves. The leaves change from green to red, orange, yellow or brown before falling. In addition, there is less sunlight because the days are shorter.


The end of Summer portends the end of young adulthood while Autumn symbolizes the turn toward the mature years of mid-life. More specifically, the Fall season represents a time of harvest; we hope to reap what we have sown.


BELLIS PERENNIS


Daisy flowers

Scientific name : Bellis perennis, Higher Classification: Bellis, Order: Asterales, Family: Asteraceae, Kingdom: Plantae, Rank: Species.


Bellis perennis, the daisy, is a common European species of the family Asteraceae, often considered the archetypal species of that name. To distinguish this species from other "daisies" it is sometimes qualified as common daisy, lawn daisy or English daisy. Historically, it has also been widely known as bruisewort, and occasionally woundwort (although the common name "woundwort" is now more closely associated with the genus Stachys).


B. perennis is native to western, central and northern Europe, including remote islands such as the Faroe Islands but has become widely naturalised in most temperate regions, including the Americas and Australasia.


It is a perennial herbaceous plant with short creeping rhizomes and rosettes of small rounded or spoon-shaped leaves that are from 3/4 to 2 inches (approx. 2–5 cm) long and grow flat to the ground. The species habitually colonises lawns, and is difficult to eradicate by mowing – hence the term 'lawn daisy'. It exhibits the phenomenon of heliotropism where the flowers follow the position of the sun in the sky.


The flowerheads are composite, about 3/4 to 1-1/4 in (approx. 2–3 cm) in diameter, in the form of a pseudanthium, consisting of many sessile flowers with white ray florets (often tipped red) and yellow disc florets. Each inflorescence is borne on a single leafless stem 3/4 – 4 in (approx. 2–10 cm), rarely 6 in (approx. 15 cm) tall. The capitulum, or disc of florets, is surrounded by two rows of green bracts known as "phyllaries". The achenes are without pappus.


Bellis perennis generally blooms from early to midsummer, although when grown under ideal conditions, it has a very long flowering season and will even produce a few flowers in the middle of mild winters.


It can generally be grown in USDA Zones 4 – 8 (i.e. where minimum temperatures are above −30 °F (−34 °C)) in full sun to partial shade conditions, and requires low or no maintenance. It has no known serious insect or disease problems and can generally be grown in most well-drained soils. The plant may be propagated either by seed after the last frost, or by division after flowering.


Though not native to the United States, the species is still considered a valuable ground cover in certain garden settings (e.g., as part of English or cottage inspired gardens, as well as spring meadows where low growth and some color is desired in parallel with minimal care and maintenance while helping to crowd out noxious weeds once established and naturalised).


Numerous single- and double-flowered varieties are in cultivation, producing flat or spherical blooms in a range of sizes (1 cm to 6 cm) and colours (red, pink & white). They are generally grown from seed as biennial bedding plants. They can also be purchased as plugs in Spring.


It has been reported to be mostly self-fertilizing, but some plants may be self-sterile.


Bellis may come from bellus, Latin for "pretty", and perennis is Latin for "everlasting".


The name "daisy" is considered a corruption of "day's eye",[11] because the whole head closes at night and opens in the morning. Chaucer called it "eye of the day". In Medieval times, Bellis perennis or the English Daisy was commonly known as "Mary's Rose". It is also known as bone flower.


The English Daisy is also considered to be a flower of children and innocence.


Daisy is a feminine given name. The flower name comes from the Old English word dægeseage, meaning "day's eye".


The name Daisy is therefore ultimately derived from this source. Daisy is also a nickname for Margaret, used because Marguerite, the French version of that name, is also a French name for the oxeye daisy.


It came into popular use in the late Victorian era along with other flower names. Authors Linda Rosenkrantz and Pamela Redmond Satran wrote in their 2007 book Baby Name Bible that Daisy has a "fresh, wholesome, and energetic" image.


The name has been used for literary characters such as Daisy Miller, the title character of the novella by Henry James. In Louisa May Alcott's Little Women, a character named Margaret is "Meg" to her family, but "Daisy" to her wealthy would-be-friends. In television, Daisy Duke on The Dukes of Hazzard wears very short, form-fitting, denim cut-off jeans shorts, now often called named Daisy Dukes after this character.


WHITE CLOVER


Trifolium repens

Trifolium repens, the white clover also known as Dutch clover, Ladino clover, or Ladino, is a herbaceous peerennial plant in the bean family Fabaceae previous referred to as Leguminosae. It is native to Europe, including the British Isles, and central Asia and is one of the most widely cultivated types of clover. It has been widely introduced worldwide as forage crop, and is now also common in most grassy areas( lawns and gardens) of North America, Australia and New Zealand.


The species includes varieties often classed as small, intermediate and large, according to height, which reflects petiole length. The term 'white clover' is applied to the species in general, 'Dutch clover' is often applied to intermediate varieties (but sometimes to smaller varieties), and 'ladino clover' is applied to large varieties.


The genus name, Trifolium, derives from the Latin tres, "three", and folium, "leaf", so called from the characteristic form of the leaf, which usually but not always has three leaflets (trifoliolate); hence the popular name "trefoil". The species name, repens, is Latin for "creeping".


It is a herbaceous, perennial plant. It is low growing, with heads of whitish flowers, often with a tinge of pink or cream that may come on with the aging of the plant. The heads are generally 1.5–2 centimetres (0.6–0.8 in) wide, and are at the end of 7-cm (2.8-in) peduncles or inflorescence stalks. The flowers are mostly visited by bumblebees nd often by honey bees. The leaves are trifoliolate, smooth, elliptic to egg-shaped and long-petioled and usually with light or dark markings. The stems function as stolons, so white clover often forms mats, with the stems creeping as much as 18 cm (7.1 in) a year, and rooting at the nodes.[16] The leaves form the symbol known as shamrock. Almost always, a white clover will be trifoliolate. However, one can, but only sometimes, possess four or more leaflets


White clover seeds may be sown on frozen ground and will germinate when the soil warms. You can also boost grasses in your pasture by no-till seeding the clover. When temperatures are above 59 degrees Fahrenheit, clover germination time is usually less than a week.


BANANA LEAF


Banana leaves

Musa is one of two or three genera in the family Musaceae. The genus includes flowering plants producing edible bananas and plantains. Around 70 species of Musa are known, with a broad variety of uses.


Musa basjoo, more commonly known as Japanese banana, is a tropical fruiting plant that can be propagated by seeds or division to produce additional plants. Seed collection and planting allows you to propagate new plants at any time by saving the seeds until you are ready. Division of offshoots is a fast method of obtaining new plants, but must be completed when new shoots appear. Choose the option that best fits your needs to obtain additional plants for your garden.


Scientific name : Musa, Higher classification: Bananas, Kingdom: Plantae, Family: Musaceae, Order: Zingiberales, Rank: Genus.


Though they grow as high as trees, banana and plantain plants are not woody and their apparent "stem" is made up of the bases of the huge leaf stalks. Thus, they are technically gigantic herbaceous plants.


Musa species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the giant leopard moth and other Hypercompe species, including H. albescens (only recorded on Musa), H. eridanus, and H. icasia.


Banana leaves are large, wide, elongated, and slightly rounded, averaging two meters in length, a half a meter in width, and 8-12 leaves per tree. The surface of the leaves are waxy, flexible, and glossy, and range in color from lime, olive green, to dark green. There is a central midrib that runs the length of the leaf and two laminas, or leaf halves are found on either side of the midrib. The leaves do not have branching veins, and this makes them vulnerable to tearing easily. Banana plants also have a pseudostem, which is a false stem that looks like a trunk but is multiple fleshy leaf sheaths that are tightly overlapped. Banana leaves have a grassy and sweet, green flavor.


Banana leaves, botanically classified as Musa acuminate, grow on a perennial herbal shrub that resembles a tree but is classified as a plant. There are many varieties of Banana plants growing in tropical regions, and some can grow up to 7-8 meters tall. Bananas are believed to have been one of the world’s first cultivated fruits, and the leaves have become a popular cooking tool. Banana leaves are not typically consumed but are used as a waterproof wrapper to cook food and add flavor. In addition to cooking, they are also used as plate liners, cups, bowls, and as a writing tablet.


Banana trees are believed to have originated in Southeast Asia between 8,000-5,000 BCE, were then spread to the new world via explorers, and became commercially cultivated in the late 1880s. Today Banana leaves are widely available in specialty markets and on online retailers across the world including Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Africa, Latin America, Europe, Australia, the United States, and the Caribbean.


The Banana leaf has various symbolic meanings. In Africa, Banana leaves symbolize abundant fertility and are used in a ritual to make women fertile. Did you know that the flowers that turn into the banana fruit are sterile and because of this, Buddha made the banana plant the symbol of futility of earthly possessions.


A single pseudostem may have as few as four leaves at a time or have several dozen. The amount of leaves that a banana will retain at any one time is due both to plant genetics as well as growing conditions. In moist, rich soils, a banana will retain more leaves than in a dry, unfertile soil.


BLEEDING HEART


Pink leaf

Bleeding heart, any of several species of Dicentra or the species Lamprocapnos spectabilis (formerly Dicentra spectabilis), all of which are members of the poppy family (Papaveraceae).


Bleeding hearts are commonly grown as shade-garden ornamentals and are native to the temperate woodlands of eastern Asia and North America.


Dicentra, genus of eight species of flowering plants of the poppy family (Papaveraceae). The genus features a number of popular garden ornamentals, including Dutchman's breeches (Dicentra cucullaria), squirrel corn (D. canadensis), and some species of bleeding heart.


Just for the record: a new name for the Old Fashioned Bleeding Hearts. Because of the similarity of their flowers, Old fashioned Bleeding Hearts (with a Latin name of Dicentra spectabilis) and the Fringed Bleeding Hearts (such as Dicentra eximia) were always considered to be part of the same Dicentra genus.


PROPAGATING BLEEDING HEARTS :


Few plants match the old-fashioned charm and romantic blossoms of bleeding hearts. These whimsical plants appear during spring in shady to partially sunny locations. As perennials they come back year after year but how to propagate bleeding heart plants? Bleeding heart propagation is easy through seed, cuttings, or division. Cuttings and division will give plants truer to the parent plant and a quicker bloom time. These are simple ways to grow more bleeding hearts to share with friends and family.


WHEN TO PROPAGATE A BLEEDING HEARTs:


With its lacy, fern-like fortiage and pillowy, heart-shaped flowers, bleeding heart is one of the champions of the low light landscape. The plants will bloom for years but often flowers slow down as the plant gets older. This when to propagate a bleeding heart by division. Such activity will rejuvenate the plant while also allowing you to grow more. Division can occur either in fall or early spring. If dividing in fall, wait until the foilage has died back.


You may also choose to propagate the plants with seed but results will be variable and the process much slower. The best time to plant seeds is in late summer. The seeds need a period of cold exposure to break dormancy and take release th embryo. You may also choose to plant the seeds in pots and take them indoors, but they will still need several weeks in the freezer before they will germinate.


Some species of bleeding heart will self-slow, so be on the lookout under the parent plant for babies. These can be transplated once they have two sets of true leaves into a prepared garden bed in partial to full-shade. Cuttings should be taked while the plant is actively growing but after it has flowered.


PROPAGATING BLEEDING HEARTS FROM SEED:


Bleeding heart propagation from seed is fairly straightforward. Lightly pre-moisten the soil in which the seeds will grow. A good potting mixture with plenty of peat and vermiculite will be perfect. You may also slow directly into a prepared garden bed. Plant seeds half as deep as the seed's width. Cver the soil. For indoor seeds in pots, wrap the pots in plastic wrap and the containers in a warm location to germinate. Germination usually takes place in a month. Outdoor seeds will not germinate until soil and ambient temperated warm in spring. Transplant seedlings gently and keep moderately moist until they establish.


HOW TO PROPAGATE BLEEDING HEART PLANTS WITH CUTTINGS OR DIVISIONS:


Another method of propagating bleeding hearts is through vegetative means. Bleeding hearts react well to division and, in fact, grow much better if divided every 5 years or so. Dig up the plant carefully and use a sharp, clean soil saw to cut the plant in half or thirds. Each portion should be planted in loose soil or in containers and kept moderately moist. For cuttings, you may take a portion of a root. Befire taking root cuttings, water the plant thoroughlt the night before. Excavate carefully to find a good, healthy thick root. Rinse the root clean and look for growth nodes. Take a section of the root that includes at least two nodes. Lay the cutting on pre-moistened horticultural sand and cover it with an inch (2.5 cm.) more of the material. Keep the cutting moist in low light. Usually, in 4 to 6 weeks you can expect some sprouting.


MOUNTAIN LAKE


Fresh lake

Large quantities of materials that fall from the sides of steep valleys into the floors of stream valleys can cause dams that create new lakes. Such landslides usually occur as a result of abnormal meteorological events, such as excessive rains acting on an unstable slope. Landslide dams may be a result of rockfalls, mudflows or even iceslides. Lakes that are formed by landslides are usually only temporary because they may be susceptible to erosion by the flow of the river or stream. If the dam is very large, the lake may become permanent.


NATURE PHOTOTGRAPHY IDEAS


Birds flying on the sky

During photoshoot of flying birds then you requires more effort and patience.


FEW TIIPS TO CAPTURE THE ACTION:


Photography early in the morning when birds are active.


Use burst shot mode to take several photographs during the action.


Track the bird until focus if locked before pressing the shutter. Learn to anticipate the action by studying their behaviour. Birds tend to ignore you when they are very hungry. It is very easy to photograph them in action at these times. But care should be taken not to disturb them. Maintain considerable distance between you and them. Capturing birds's behaviour is tougher! They become alrert the moment you are in their sight. An alert bird is ready to takeoff anytime. So, you have to be patient. You can observe the bird's behaviour only when they on their own. They have to be comforatable in your presence. There are few ways to make the bird comfortable.


Go early in the morning when birds are actively feeding. hide behind a bush or tree and move slowly. Sit or lie down quietly. Wait patiently until the bird ignores you. Visit the location several days until the bird becomes comfortable with your presence. Remember to learn about the bids that you are phototgraphing. Study their behaviour while you are waiting. The more you understand the bird, the better your photographs will be....


GROWINGS PLANTS


plants

WATERING SOIL


making soil wet

For seeds to germinate, you need to keep the growing soil damp but not too wet..Many seed starters cover the container to keep soil moist until seeds germinate. Once seeds sprout, do not miss a watering. Unlike established plants, seedlings do not have an extensive root system they can rely on for vital moisture.


SOWING SEEDS


Sowing by hands

Hand sowing or (planting) is the process of casting handfuls of seed over prepared ground, or broadcasting (from which the technological term is derived). Usually, a drag or hrrow is employed to incorporate the seed into the soil. Though labor-intensive for any but small areas, this method is still used in some situations. Practice is required to sow evenly and at the desired rate. A hand seeder can be used for sowing, though it is less of a help than it is for the smaller seeds of grasses and legumes.


Hand sowing may be combined with pre-sowing in seed trays. This allows the plants to come to strength indoors during cold periods (e.g. spring in temperate countries).


In agriculture, most seed is now sown using a seed drill, which offers greater precision; seed is sown evenly and at the desired rate. The drill also places the seed at a measured distance below the soil, so that less seed is required. The standard design uses a fluted feed metering system, which is volumetric in nature; individual seeds are not counted. Rows are typically about 10–30 cm apart, depending on the crop species and growing conditions. Several row opener types are used depending on soil type and local tradition. Grain drills are most often drawn by tractors, but can also be pulled by horses. Pickup trucks are sometimes used, since little draft is required.


A seed rate of about 100 kg of seed per hectare (2 bushels per acre) is typical, though rates vary considerably depending on crop species, soil conditions, and farmer's preference. Excessive rates can cause the crop to lodge, while too thin a rate will result in poor utilisation of the land, competition with weeds and a reduction in the yield.


WATERING SEEDS


Watering

Lightly wet with water to provide a good environment for the seeds to grow in. However, do note that soil-less mixture contains zero nutritional value so it may be a good idea to use seed and cutting compost.


Water temperature is important. It doesn't matter if you water in seeds you've just sown with cold water, but after that point, use liquid at room temperature to avoid stressing the emerging seedlings. I’m lucky enough to have access to a large propagator that I keep a watering can in, continuously topped up. Just let any water from a tap stand overnight in a warm spot. When pricking out, not only use warmed water but fill the new pots with compost the day before and water them, then leave them overnight (in a propagator if you can) to warm up. .


SEEDLINGS GERMINATING


Germinating

When seeds are planted, they first grow roots. Once these roots take hold, a small plant will begin to emerge and eventually break through the soil. When this happens, we say that the seed has sprouted. The scientific name for this process is germination.


We know that seeds need optimal amounts of water, oxygen, temperature, and light to germinate. If we don't create the most optimal environment possible, then plants tend to germinate slowly and unevenly.


The beginning of the growth of a seed into a seedling is known as germination. All seeds need water, oxygen and the right temperature to germinate. Dormancy is a state of suspended animation in which seeds delay germination until conditions are right for survival and growth.


By soaking the seeds in water for few hours, you can enhance the germination of the seeds. Use warm water while soaking so that the seeds sprout well. Soaking for 8 to 12 hours will do the trick for you. Oversoaking will decompose the seeds and spoil your whole effort.


Occasionally seedcoats remain, covering the cotyledons as your seedlings emerge. They can become hard if the atmosphere is dry, preventing the leaves from unfurling hand mist them frequently with warm water to keep the cases soft so that they break open. Invest in a good watering can rose-one that emits gentle droplets of water. It's so easy to dislodge or flood out seedlings otherwise. There’s no getting around it – good, multidirectional light is essential. Once emerged, a seedling will become stretched and leggy in just a few days, giving it an uphill struggle for survival from the off. If you’ve not cleaned your glass and propagator, do so. For those on a budget, lining the back of your propagator with silver foil will help a little. Unless specifically directed to use deep containers (for sweet peas and broad beans, for example) sow in shallow trays or modules. A propagator only applies its heat from the base, so you want to get your seeds as close to this source as possible.


Initially place seedlings outdoors in a sheltered spot-protected from wind and direct sun.


watering to seedling

Each day following, expose plants to another 30-60 minutes of filtered sunlight. By the end of the hardening-off time frame, seedlings should be experiencing the same amount of sunlight they'll receive in the garden. it is true that your seedlings need lots of bright light to grow healthy and strong—but they also need a period of darkness in order to thrive. In general, seedlings should receive roughly 14 to 16 hours of light a day when situated in a south-facing window. Put a small fan next to your seedlings on a timer so that the plants are blown in the breeze for a couple of hours a day and gently passing your hand over the tops of seedlings a few times every day to stimulate stronger growth.


SEEDLINGS GROWING


Growing

The general rule of thumb is that when a seedling has three to four true leaves, it's large enough to plant out in the garden


PRICKING OUT, POTTING ON & TRANSPLANTING


Pricking out

Make sure you have got some cells or pots full of multi purpose compost and control release fertiliser (3g per litre of compost), ready for your seedlings to go straight into. Next, use a sharpened piece of green cane as a dibber to transplant the seedlings, this allows you to be a bit more careful and gentle with the plants. The first pair of leaves are known as the seed leaves. Once they start to grow their second pair of leaves (true leaves) they are ready to be pricked out'. If they are too big, this should have been done earlier. When pricking out, never handle the seeds by the steam, you could break it. Make sure you hold them by the leaf instead. If a leaf is damaged it can grow a new one, but a seedling can't grow a new stem.


Potting on

Never pull a seedling with your hand. Use the dibber right next to the steam, towards the base, and let it do all the levering. Now, make a hole in the centre of the cell and bury a good part of the stem. The buried stem will produce new roots along it. Bury the plant too shallow and it will fall over and you will get a swan neck effect. Very gently water the seeds, being careful not to be too vigorous as this will wash them away. Lastly, label up your plant with a pencil, as this will never rub off or fade, then place them in your greenhouse to happily grow away.


TRANSPLANT SEEDLINGS OUTSIDE


Transplant seedlings

Transplanting tender seedlings outside is a regionally specific farm or garden task. In zones 8-11 you may be able to transplant seasonally appropriate plants all year round. For colder growing zones you may need to transplant your seedlings all at once in the late Spring once nighttime temperatures are reliably above 50F. If you will be growing in a hoop house or cold frame you can move up your planting time by a number of weeks. The best time to transplant any plant seedlings, whether it is one you have purchased from a local nursery or started yourself in seed starting trays, is once it has reached the proper stage of growth and outside conditions are appropriate.


Waiting until the seedling develops its second set of true leaves is one way to determine if a seedling is ready or not - but that is not always a hard and fast rule. Seedlings grown in cell trays need a sufficient root system in place before transplanting outdoors or into a cold frame. If the roots have not developed enough before you attempt to transplant outdoors, the root ball may fall apart when removed from the tray. This can break the fragile new roots and stunt the growth of your plants. Having a strong root system is the best indication. You can check for proper optimal root growth by grasping one of your seedlings at the soil surface and gently pulling it from the tray. The entire plug should slide out of the cell tray. If the seedling is immature it will pull out and leave the majority of the potting soil behind in the tray. If the seedling is overdeveloped it will come out easily but be root bound. Root binding happens when seedlings are left in plastic pots or trays for too long and the roots encircle the entire plug. Root bound seedlings are easy to identify because there will be numerous roots sticking out of the drainage holes and when you remove the plug you will see mostly roots with little growing media visible.


- Use a bottom watering system to avoid compacting the soil.


- Plant in properly sized trays that encourage downward root growth.


- Pot up your seedlings before they become root bound if you cannot transplant them yet.


When choosing seedlings from a nursery to transplant into your home garden there are a few things to look for to ensure you get the healthiest plant starts you can for a successful garden. You want big and healthy stems and leaves but not so big that the plant has overgrown its small pot and become root bound.


- Avoid leggy plants with tall thin stems. These have likely not been receiving direct sunlight and will possibly fall over when planted outside.


- Choose smaller, compact seedlings. They are ready to grow big once you plant them.


- Check the foliage for discoloration and damage. Leaves should be uniformly green (unless it is a plant with variegated foliage).


- Look at the underside of the leaves to be sure there are no hitchhiking pests like aphids or insect eggs.


- Check the plants for signs of disease including yellowing of the leaves, brown spots and dried out tips.


- Look at the bottom drainage holes, a few visible roots are ok but if there are a lot sticking out through the holes it is probably root bound.


- Look for moss or signs of fuzzy mold on the soil surface. These are likely signs that the seedlings are old stock or of overwatering both of which which can cause weak transplants.


- Squeeze the sides of the pot. It should give a little under pressure showing that there is still some loose potting soil, meaning the roots have a little space left to grow into.


- Too little soil moisture is just as problematic as too much so make sure the potting mix is moist but not sopping wet. Root bound seedlings will often become hydrophobic and not take up water properly.


- Choose plants that have only leaves and possibly buds. Vegetables and fruits that have already begun to flower and fruit will stay small even if they are given more space.


POTTING SEEDLINGS INTO A POTS


Potting seedlings

In late spring, I'm a repotting queen1 I use plug flats and cell packs to start my vegetable, flower, and herb seeds they're extremely efficient in terms of space - but, they don't offer a lot of root room. After 6 to 8 weeks under the grow lights, many of the seedlings need to be repotted into larger containers to ensure continued healthy growth until its time to move them into the garden. You’ll know your seedlings are ready to be repotted when their roots have filled their current containers and their foliage is crowding out the neighbours. Still not sure? Use a butter knife to pop a plant out of its pot and take a peek at the roots. If they’re well developed and encircling the soil ball, its time to repot.


Moving your seedlings to larger containers will help ensure a healthy root system and top-quality transplants for your garden. New containers should be about twice as large as the old ones.


- Gather all your materials (pots, poting soil, tgs, waterproof marker, butter knife) first so that repotting is quick and eficient.


- Water seedlings before starting. Moist soil will cling to the roots, protecting them from damage and drying out.


- No tugging! Don't pull the baby plants from their cell flats or plug trays. Use a butter knife, narrow trowel, or even just a long nail to prick the seedlings from their containers.


- If there is more than one seedling in your container, gently tease them apart for repotting.


- Place them in the new pot, lightly tamping the soil.


- Have a stack of labels ready to go and give each ppot a fresh tag. Alternatively, use a waterproof marker to write the name of the plant on the side of the pot.


- Water with a diluted liquid fertilizer to settle the roots in the new soil and encourage healthy growth.


WATERING TO SEEDLINGS


Water is one of the vital elements when starting plants from seed. Too much water and your seeds will drown or rot. Too little and they will either fail to germinate or die once they do.


If you are starting your vegetable garden from seed, you have two choices. One, you can start your seeds indoors and then plant them outside as seedlings several weeks later, or you can direct seed into your garden.


watering TO SEEDLINGS

There are a number of good reasons to start seeds early indoors. Most importantly, you get ahead of the growing season. This is especially important if you live in a place with a short growing season. Another advantage is that you can tightly control the ideal growing conditions: temperature, moisture, sunlight, etc. A third advantage is cooling that early spring itch to get outside and get something in the ground!


Overwatering can damage and even kill plants, but as long as you take action before it's too late, you can save an overwatered plant. You can tell a plant has been overwatered when the leaf color begins to fade to pale green or yellow, algae or mold appears in the pot, a foul odor is present, the plant begins to wilt, or new growth stops even though you've been watering the plant. First, make sure the container your plant grows in has drainage holes.


Don't give the plant any more water until the soil is dry. You can check by sticking your finger into a hole in the soil, and if soil clings to your skin, it's still moist. The top of an overwatered plant is sensitive to sun, so move the plant into the shade to protect its foliage from further damage. Using a spade or your hand, tap the sides of the container to loosen the soil. Tilt the container and gently slide the plant out of the pot. Use your hands to shake the dirt off the plant's roots so you can examine them.


Discard the soil. once a plant's been overwatered, it may contain mold, algae, or transmit root rot. Use clean, sterilized gardening shears to snip away any slimy or discolored roots that are turning brown and discard them. Keep roots that are pale, firm, and healthy. Sterilize your shears again, then trim away any dead or damaged leaves and foliage from the plant. Repot the plant into a new container with fresh potting soil, and water it only when the soil has dried out. Test the same way, by sticking a finger into the soil and waiting until no soil clings to your skin.


There are a few steps you can take to make seeds germinate faster. Soak seeds in warm distilled water for 24 hours before sowing to soften the seed coat and speed up germination. You can also use a heat mat to keep seeds in the best temperature range to help them germinate quickly. Using the plastic cover of a seed tray or covering your seed container with plastic wrap can also help germination along by keeping things moist. If your seed package says they need scarification, stratification, or cold treatment before germination.


SUNLIGHT TO SEEDLING


sunlight to seedling

Harden off fragile seedlings over the course of 6-14 days. The idea is to expose plants gradually to outdoor conditions, each day incrementally increasing the time seedlings spend outside. Withhold water gradually over the course of hardening off. Don't allow seedlings to wilt, but also don't pamper them by keeping soil perfectly moist. Stop fertilizing seedlings 3-4 days before you plan to start hardening off. Don't fertilize again until you plant seedlings into the garden.


Initially place seedlings outdoors in a sheltered spot-protected from wind and direct sun. Each day following, expose plants to another 30-60 minutes of filtered sunlight. Work your way up to giving plants direct morning sun, followed last by noon-day sun. By the end of the hardening-off time frame, seedlings should be experiencing the same amount of sunlight they'll receive in the garden. Bring seedlings inside for the first two nights. If shuffling seedlings from place to place proves too difficult, tuck them into a partly shaded spot for a few days. Great choices include a location under a tree or picnic table, a covered porch, or an area next to a building where the structure's shadow will shelter seedlings. After 3-4 days, move the seedlings to a slightly sunnier site.


Keep tabs on predicted nighttime lows. If temperatures dip near freezing, move seedlings indoors or cover with a spun-polystyrene row cover, which protects plants from frost while allowing water and some sunlight to pass. You'll get the best frost protection when you mount the row cover so it doesn't directly touch foliage. Unless freezing temperatures are forecast, plan to leave seedlings outside overnight by the third or fourth night. Place them near a building or beneath a table to provide some protection. By the sixth night or so, expose seedlings to night air without any protection.


After seedlings experience a week or so of hardening off, you'll notice stems are stockier. Tuck plants into the garden on an overcast or drizzly day when winds are calm. Water in seedlings using a fertilizer solution diluted to half strength. After planting, continue to protect seedlings if high winds, frost, hail or heavy downpours threaten. Shelter plants beneath buckets, row covers or cloches. A plastic gallon jug with the bottom removed makes a good cloche for a seedling.


WATERING TO PLANTS


Watering plants

- To boost the natural growth cycle of the plants in your garden, water them in the morning without fail.


- At this time of the day, plants are ready to absorb ample of water, and good hydration helps them withstand all through the day.


- Watering before 10 am is apt because it helps the water seep into the garden substantially.


- Watering in the middle of a day is definitely not a good idea, especially when sky is clear and sun is right at its peak in afternoon. Watering in hot hours will have adverse effect on growth of plants.


- If you choose to water your plants later in the day, water them in the late afternoon when the sun is not at its peak. This will help the plants absorb water before the nightfall and will not hamper their growth in any way. Watering during this time avoids evaporation of water.


- In summer season you can always water your plants in evening. Many container grown. sun loving vegetables and outdoor potted flowering shrubs need to be watered twice a day (Morning and evening) in Indian summer, particularly during the months of April and May.


Keep in mind that let the leaves dry before the night takes over as wet leaves are an open invitation to fungus.s


GOLDEN RULES FOR WATERING PLANTS


- Keep the plants evenly moist


- Do not water often with little water. It is always better to water seldom and that too thoroughly


- As the wet leaves are an open invitation to disease manifestation, keep the leaves dry.


- Suitable watering is of prime importance. See to it that the water reaches the roots.


- Remember that the water seeps into the ground slowly and gradually. Hence, supply large quantity of water in intervals.


- Always water around the plant and distribute it in the entire area.


- Dropor sprinkler Irrigation: is an excellent way of watering the plants. You can use an automatic irrigation system embedded with moisture sensor on the bed, on the balcony or the lawn.


- Water logging will hamper the roots and damage them. Hence avoid water clogging.


- Use quality, loamy soil with appropriate amount of sand and clay.


- Use proper watering instruments like a watering can, hose, spray, etc.


SHADE NET GARDENING PLANTS


shade net gardening

As we all know, sunlight is so crucial to a plants' growth, so choose the right density and as low a density as you can get away with. Usually a shade percentage of 30-50% is ideal for vegetables, while 80-90% is ideal for sheltering people. Most plants will do best with a maximum of 40% - 60% shade.


Shade Nets are lightweight knitted Polyethylene fabrics which are brought in use to bring about the protection from Sun's heat and the ultraviolet radiations which we or the plants might be exposed to unknowingly.


Shade cover can be used to create shade houses or net houses. Shade houses generally have shade cloth over it. They are mainly used to protect cultivated plants from excessive heat, light or dryness. Different shade cloth can be available in different colors and percentages to protect plants from sun, frost, etc,..


Full Sun: This is the part of the garden that receives direct light(usually 6or more hrs a day between 10 am and 6 pm) from the sun. Normally, fruiting vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumbers, squash, eggplants, and peppers need to be planted in full sun areas where they obtain the most sunlight during the day.


Partial shade or Partial sun: The portion of the garden that otains 3-6 hrs of sun or shade for the rest of the day. Rooot vegetables which contains beets, carrots and potatoes can be grown in partial shade aread.


Light shade: Light shade areas obtain less sunlight or reflected light during the day. It usually receives about 2 to 4 hrs of sunlight per day. leafy vegetables such as spinach, chards, and salad greens are the most tolerant plants that you can grow in light shade places.


- This shade net gardening technique is easy to install and give more productivity even in the adverse weather confditions.


- The shade net is prepared using plastic, towers made up of iron and wire ropes which are locally obtainable and comparatively at low price.


- Water requirement of garden plants reduces leading to water conservation.


- Helps in the cultivation of flower plants, foilage plants, and medicinal plants, all vegetables and spices.


- Shade net used for fruit an vegetable nurseries as well as for raising of forest species etc,.


Vegetables suitable for shade net: Asparagus, Carrots, Beans, Cucumbers, Beetroots, Brocoli, Lettuce, Potatoes, Radish, Brussels sprouts, Cabbage, Pea, Cauliflower, Capsicum, herbs( almost all), Leeks, Onions, Parsnips, Parsley, Scallions, Spinach, Shallots,Turnip, Tomatoes.


Types of shade net house: A shade net is a stucture that is framed and made using materials like wood or bamboo, steel pipes and iron.


Fully enclosed shade-house : reduced heat stress and protects against sunburn, reduces wind strength, minimizes the impact of wind-driven rain, keeps kangaroos, wallabies, hares, rabbit, birds and other wildlife out, and Keeps the bigger insects out. s


SHADE NET HOUSE DESIGN


shade net

- As a first step, te outer vertical poles were cut to size and erected and they were supported on either the walls or the false pillar posts in the garden. A small square rod was forst drilled into the wall at an angle 20 to 30 degrees to the ground. This angle helps the rod stay stay put inside the wall and then the steel pipes were soldered to these rods.


- Next measurements were noted for the triangular trusses. And each of the trusses was fabricated from the steel pipe to measurement and market. Then they were soldered on to the vertical posts.


- The inner verticals were then erected and soldered onto all trusses. A few flats were soldered on to the verticals for extra support and to create a permanent trellis structure.


- And lastly the horizontal bars were laid down on top and soldered to the top of the trusses and these connected the three trusses.


- After the arrangement was ready we cleaned up the pipes using sandpaper and cloth painted it for protection. After the paint was dry the shade cloth was laid on top of the construction and was fastened using fishing net wire. The fishing net wire we used was Uv ray protected. So it would not simply disintegrate in heat and would hold on the for musch longer than normal plastic wires.


- To provide it extra protection from the wind we tied coconut fiber ropes going across the shade cloth from one side to side to the other. This was essential as out place is very windly.


Grow your plants under shade net: Vegetables that are grown in shadenet houses are most likely to be succulent and free of the bitter taste. To effectively grow vegetables in a shade house, look for areas which receive sunlight above ground level. Areas that are shaded in the morning but suuny by afternoon are perfect for climbing vegetables like beans, peas, squashes, and cucumbers.


Use Good soil: If you are going to challenge shade-tolerant crops to grow in partial shade., provide them with good-quality soil with plenty of nutritous xompost. If tree roots are a major problem, consider using a raised bed or growing vegetables in containers.


Moisture requirermnts: the watering needs of shade garden will be different than a garden in full sun. Moisture doesn't evaporate as quickly in the shade so you could not need to water as often. However, if the shade garden is near trees, you may need to water more frequently since your plants will be competing with trees for moisture. Also the leafy canopy can prevent rain from reaching plants. Water when the garden soil feels dry and mulch to conserve moisture.


Useful tips to grow plants in Shade net:


- Use good soil with nutritious compost when growing vegetables in the shade house.


- Since you are growing your plant in the shade house, watering requirements can be different than growing plants in full sun.


- Check shade house regularly for pests such as slugs and snails which can thrive in cool and shady areas. You must practice good sanitation procedures to avoid pest problems.


- You can mainly utilize reflective mulches to cast light up onto your plants. Reflective mulches can reduce damages that are caused by pests such as aphids.


PISTIA


pistia floating plant

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Scientifi classification of pistia - kingdom: Plantae, Clade: Tracheophytes, Monocots, family: Aaceae, subfamily: Aroideae, Tribe: PistieaeGenus: Pistia, Species: P.stratiotes.


Pista is a genus of aquatic plants in the aru family, Araceae. It is the sole genus in the tribe Pisieae which reflects its systematic isolation within the family.


It was first discovered from the Nile near Lake victoria in Africa.


Pistia stratiotes is a perenial monocotyledon with thick, soft leaves that form a rosette. It floats on the surface of thewater, its roots hanging submersed beneath floating leaves. The leaves can measure 2 - 15 cm long and are light green, with parallel venations and wavy margins.


The surface of the leaves is covered in short, white hairs which form basket-like structures that can trap air bubbles and increase the plant's buoyancy. The spongy parenchyma with large intercellular spaces in the leaves also aids the plant in floating. The flowers are dioecious, lac petals, and are hidden in the middle of the plant amongst the leaves.


Pistia stratiotes has a spadix inflorescence, containing one pistillate flower with one ovary and 2-8 staminate flowers with two stamens. The pistillate and carpellate flowers flowers are sperated by folds in the spathe, where the male flowers are located above female flowers. Oval, green berries with oviod seeds form after successful fertilization. The plant undergoes asexual reproduction by propagating through stolons, yet evidence of sexual reproduction has also been oberved in the ponds of Southern Brazil.


Pistia stratiotes are found in slow-moving rivers, lakes, and ponds. The species displays optimal growth in the temperature range of 22-30C , but can endure extreme temperatures upto 35C. As a result, Pistia stratiotes do not grow in colder temperatures, beyond the tropics of Cancer and Capricon. The species also require slightly acidic water in the pH range of 6.5 - 7. 2 for optimal growth.


Water lettuce is among the world's most productive freshwater aquatic plants and is considered an invansive species. The species can be introduced to new areas by water dispersal, fragmentation, and hitchhiking on marine transportation or fishing equipment.


The invasion of Pistia stratiotes in the ecosystem can lead to environmental and socio-economic ramifications to the community it serves. In waters with high nutrient content, particularly those that have been contaminated with human loading of sewage or fertilizers, water lettuce can exhibit weedy overgrowth. It may also become invasive in hydrologically altered systems such as flood control canals and reservoirs.


The severe overgrowth of water lettuce can block gas exchange in the surface water, creating hypoxic conditions and eliminating or disrupting various native marine organisms.


Blocking access to sunlight, large mats of water lettuce can shade native submerged plants and alter communities relying on these native plants as a source of food.


The growth of these mats can also get tangled in boat propellers and create challenges for boaters or recreational fishermen.


LOTUS


Lotus floating plant

Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae. It is sometimes colloquially called a water lily, through this more often refers to members of the family Nymphaeceae.


Lotus plants are adapted to grow in the flood plants of slow-moving rivers and delta areas. Stands of lotus drop hundreds of thousands of seeds every year to the bottom of the pond. While some sprout immediately, and most are eaten by wildlife, the remaining seeds can remain dormant for an extensive period of time as the pond silts in and dries out. During flood conditions, sediments containing these seeds are broken open, and the dormant seeds rehydrate and begin a new lotus colony.


Under favorable circumstances, the seeds of this aquatic perennial may remain viable for many years. it has a very wide native distribution, ranging from central and northern India ( at altitudes up to 1,400 m or 4,600 ft in the southern Himalayas) , through northern Indochina and East Asia(north to the Amur region, the Russian populations have sometimes been refeered to as Nelumbo Komarovii), with isolated locations at the Caspian Sea.


Today the species also occures in southern India, Sri Lanka, virtually all of Southeast Asia, new Guinea and northern and eastern Australia, but this is probably the result of human translocations. It has a very long history of being cultivated for its edible seeds, and it is commonly cultivated in water gardens. It is the national flower of India and Vietnam. Nelum nucifera is also known as Egyptian bean.